Metal Nanomaterial Toxicity Variations Within the Vascular System
Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are anthropogenic materials with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. Their ubiquitous employment in biomedical and industrial applications in the absence of full toxicological assessments raises significant concerns over their safety on human health. This is a significant concern, especially for metal and metal oxide ENM as they may possess the greatest potential to impair human health. A large body of literature has developed that reflects adverse systemic effects associated with exposure to these materials, but an integrated mechanistic framework for how ENM exposure influences morbidity remains elusive. This may be due in large part to the tremendous diversity of existing ENM and the rate at which novel ENM are produced. In this review, the influence of specific ENM physicochemical characteristics and hemodynamic factors on cardiovascular toxicity is discussed. Additionally, the toxicity of metallic and metal oxide ENM is presented in the context of the cardiovascular system and its discrete anatomical and functional components. Finally, future directions and understudied topics are presented. While it is clear that the nanotechnology boom has increased our interest in ENM toxicity, it is also evident that the field of cardiovascular nanotoxicology remains in its infancy and continued, expansive research is necessary in order to determine the mechanisms via which ENM exposure contributes to cardiovascular morbidity.
KeywordsEngineered nanomaterials Metal Metal oxides Cardiovascular system Microcirculation
The authors would like to thank Caroll McBride for his expert technical support during the completion of this review and Elizabeth Dalton for her assistance in the development of Fig. 1. This work was supported by the following sources: National Institutes of Health R01-ES015022 (TRN) and K99-ES024783 (PAS) and the National Science Foundation Cooperative Agreement-DGE-1144676 (TRN, ABA).
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Conflict of Interest
Alaeddin B. Abukabda, Phoebe A. Stapleton, and Timothy R. Nurkiewicz declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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