Current Environmental Health Reports

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 178–187 | Cite as

Environmental Health and Long Non-coding RNAs

Environmental Epigenetics (A Baccarelli, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Environmental Epigenetics

Abstract

An individual’s risk of developing a common disease typically depends on an interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetic research is uncovering novel ways through which environmental factors such as diet, air pollution, and chemical exposure can affect our genes. DNA methylation and histone modifications are the most commonly studied epigenetic mechanisms. The role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in epigenetic processes has been more recently highlighted. LncRNAs are defined as transcribed RNA molecules greater than 200 nucleotides in length with little or no protein-coding capability. While few functional lncRNAs have been well characterized to date, they have been demonstrated to control gene regulation at every level, including transcriptional gene silencing via regulation of the chromatin structure and DNA methylation. This review aims to provide a general overview of lncRNA function with a focus on their role as key regulators of health and disease and as biomarkers of environmental exposure.

Keywords

LncRNA Disease Chemicals Toxicology Epigenetics Smoking 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Oskar Karlsson and Andrea A. Baccarelli declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical NeuroscienceKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Department of Environmental HealthHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA

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