Perchlorate and Diet: Human Exposures, Risks, and Mitigation Strategies
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Perchlorate is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that interferes with the normal functioning of the thyroid gland. Maternal thyroid dysfunction during gestation may alter fetal brain development. Perchlorate contamination is widespread: it is present in the body of all Americans tested and the majority of foods tested. The main sources of food contamination appear to be hypochlorite bleach, a disinfectant and sanitizer, that when poorly managed quickly degrades to perchlorate and perchlorate-laden plastic food packaging for dry food or localized contamination from manufacturing or processing of the chemical. Eliminating perchlorate from food packaging and improving bleach management, such as reducing concentration and storage time and temperature, would result in reduced perchlorate contamination of food and water.
KeywordsPerchlorate Neurodevelopment Food contamination Drinking water Food packaging Bleach Endocrine disruption
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Maricel V. Maffini is coauthor of the food additive petition pending before the US Food and Drug Administration requesting that the agency remove its approval of the use of perchlorate in food contact substances.
Thomas G. Neltner is a coordinator and coauthor of the food additive petition pending before the US Food and Drug Administration requesting that the agency remove its approval of the use of perchlorate in food contact substances.
Leonardo Trasande declares he has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of outstanding importance
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