Current Environmental Health Reports

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 13–22 | Cite as

An Overview of Occupational Risks From Climate Change

  • Katie M. Applebaum
  • Jay Graham
  • George M. Gray
  • Peter LaPuma
  • Sabrina A. McCormick
  • Amanda Northcross
  • Melissa J. PerryEmail author
Susceptibility Factors in Environmental Health (B Ritz, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Susceptibility Factors in Environmental Health


Changes in atmosphere and temperature are affecting multiple environmental indicators from extreme heat events to global air quality. Workers will be uniquely affected by climate change, and the occupational impacts of major shifts in atmospheric and weather conditions need greater attention. Climate change-related exposures most likely to differentially affect workers in the USA and globally include heat, ozone, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, other chemicals, pathogenic microorganisms, vector-borne diseases, violence, and wildfires. Epidemiologic evidence documents a U-, J-, or V-shaped relationship between temperature and mortality. Whereas heat-related morbidity and mortality risks are most evident in agriculture, many other outdoor occupational sectors are also at risk, including construction, transportation, landscaping, firefighting, and other emergency response operations. The toxicity of chemicals change under hyperthermic conditions, particularly for pesticides and ozone. Combined with climate-related changes in chemical transport and distribution, these interactions represent unique health risks specifically to workers. Links between heat and interpersonal conflict including violence require attention because they pose threats to the safety of emergency medicine, peacekeeping and humanitarian relief, and public safety professionals. Recommendations for anticipating how US workers will be most susceptible to climate change include formal monitoring systems for agricultural workers; modeling scenarios focusing on occupational impacts of extreme climate events including floods, wildfires, and chemical spills; and national research agenda setting focusing on control and mitigation of occupational susceptibility to climate change.


Occupational risks Climate change Heat Ozone Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Other chemicals Pathogenic microorganisms Vector-borne diseases Violence and wildfires 


Author Contributions

KMA contributed the section on agricultural heat. JG contributed the sections on pathogenic microorganisms and vector-borne infectious agents. GMG contributed the section on wildfires. PL contributed the section on conflict. SAM contributed the section on occupational heat. AN contributed the sections on ozone and PAHs. MJP contributed the section on other chemicals, coordinated the manuscript sections, and communicated with the editors. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Katie M. Applebaum, Jay Graham, George M. Gray, Peter LaPuma, Sabrina A. McCormick, Amanda Northcross, and Melissa J. Perry declare no conflicts of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katie M. Applebaum
    • 1
  • Jay Graham
    • 1
  • George M. Gray
    • 1
  • Peter LaPuma
    • 1
  • Sabrina A. McCormick
    • 1
  • Amanda Northcross
    • 1
  • Melissa J. Perry
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Milken School of Public HealthGeorge Washington UniversityWashingtonUSA

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