A Study on Removal of Rare Earth Elements from U.S. Coal Byproducts by Ion Exchange

  • Peter L. Rozelle
  • Aditi B. Khadilkar
  • Nuerxida Pulati
  • Nari Soundarrajan
  • Mark S. Klima
  • Morgan M. Mosser
  • Charles E. Miller
  • Sarma V. Pisupati
Article

Abstract

Rare earth elements are known to occur in low concentrations in U.S. coals and coal byproducts. These low concentrations may make rare earth element recovery from these materials unattractive, using only physical separation techniques. However, given the significant production of rare earths through ion exchange extraction in China, two U.S. coal byproducts were examined for ion extraction, using ammonium sulfate, an ionic liquid, and a deep eutectic solvent as lixiviants. Extraction of rare earth elements in each case produced high recoveries of rare earth elements to the solution. This suggests that in at least the cases of the materials examined, U.S. coal byproducts may be technically suitable as REE ores. More work is required to establish economic suitability.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Portions of this work were performed under funding from DOE/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DE-FE0004002).

References

  1. 1.
    K.R. Long, B.S. Van Gosen, N.K. Foley, and D. Cordier: Scientific Investigations Report 2010–5220. United States Geological Survey, 2010Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A.H. King and R.G. Eggert: in Rare Earth Elements. Metallurgical Society of CIM, Montreal, 2013, QC, 3–9Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Chemistry Council: The Economic Benefit of the North American Rare Earths Industry. Rare Earth Technology Alliance, April, 2014Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J Gambogi: in U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, 2015, pp. 128–29Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Humphries: Congressional Research Service Report R41347, 2012Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Zubovic, T. Stadnichenko, and N.B. Sheffey: United States Geological Survey Bulletin 1117-A, 1961Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. Zubovic, T. Stadnichenko, and N.B. Sheffey: United States Geological Survey Bulletin 1117-B, 1964Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. Zubovic, T. Stadnichenko, and N.B. Sheffey: United States Geological Survey Bulletin 1117-C, 1966Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Zubovic, T. Stadnichenko, and N.B. Sheffey: United States Geological Survey Bulletin 1117-D, 1967Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    H.J. Gluskoter, R.R. Ruch, W.G. Miller, R.A. Cahill, G.B. Dreher, and J.K. Kuhn: Trace Elements in Coal: Occurrence and Distribution. Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 499, 1977Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.C. Hower, L.F. Ruppert, C.F. Eble, Int. J. Coal Geol. 39, 141–53 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    P.D. Warwick, S.S. Crowley, L.F. Ruppert, J. Pontolillo, Int. J. Coal Geol. 34, 307–26 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S.S. Crowley, P.D. Warwick, L.F. Ruppert, J. Pontolillo, Int. J. Coal Geol. 34, 327–43 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    C.B. Cecil, R.W. Stanton, and F.T. Dulong: United States Geological Survey Open File Report 81-953-A, 1981Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    C.B. Cecil, R.W. Stanton, and F.T. Dulong: United States Geological Survey Open File Report 81-953-B, 1981Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    S.J. Schatzel, B.W. Stewart, Int. J. Coal Geol. 54, 223–51 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    United States Geological Survey, “US Coal Quality Database”, http://energy.er.usgs.gov/coalqual.htm
  18. 18.
    A. Jordens, Y.P. Cheng, K.E. Waters, Miner. Eng. 41, 97–114 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    R.B. Finkleman: Ph.D. Thesis, University of Maryland, 1980Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R.B. Finkleman, Scanning Electron Microsc. 2(1), 97–105 (1998)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    R.B. Finkleman, Scanning Electron. Microsc. 1, 143–48 (1978)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S.V. Vassilev, C.G. Vassileva, Fuel Process. Technol. 48, 85–106 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    L.F. Ruppert, P.D. Warwick, S.S. Crowley, J. Pontolillo, Trans. Gulf Coast Assoc. Geol. Soc. 44, 649–56 (1994)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    R.B. Finkleman, R.W. Stanton, Fuel 57, 763–68 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    V.V. Seredin, S. Dai, Int. J. Coal Geol. 94, 67–93 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    R. Cullers, S. Chaudhuri, N. Kilbane, R. Koch, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 43, 1285–1301 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    D.A. Spears, Int. J. Coal Geol. 94, 22–31 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    B.F. Bohor and C.L. Pillmore: New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 27th Field Conference, 1976, pp. 177–83Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    S.S. Crowley, R.W. Stanton, T.A. Ryer, Org. Geochem. 14, 315–31 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S.S. Crowley, L.F. Ruppert, H.F. Belkin, R.W. Stanton, T.A. Moore, Org. Geochem. 20, 843–54 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M.E. Brownfield and E.A. Johnson: Scientific Investigations Report 2008–5033 United States Geological Survey, 2008Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. Chi, J. Tian, Weathered Crust Elution-Deposited Rare Earth Ores (Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2009)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    S.J. Yang, A. Lin, X.-L. Li, Y. Wu, W. Zhou, Z. Chen, Environ. Dev 8, 131–36 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. Chi, J. Tian, X. Luo, Z. Xu, and Z. He: in Rare Earth Elements 2013. Metallurgical Society of CIM, Montreal, 2013, pp. 189–99Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    E. Roaldset, Clay Miner. 14, 229–40 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    SGS Cananda, Incorporated: NI 43-101 Technical Report, 2014Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    A. Rocha, D. Schissel, A. Sprecher, P. de Tarso, and J.R. Goode: in Rare Earth Elements 2013. Metallurgical Society of CIM, Montreal, QC. 2013, pp. 277–88Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. Tian, R. Chi, i.-Q. Yin, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 20, 892–96 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    F.A. Aplan: in Rare Earths, Extraction, Preparation and Applications. The Metals Society, 1989, pp. 15–34Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    D. Mahlotra, G.E. Burrer, T.E. Irwin, S. Johnson, AIME Trans. 280, 55–59 (1986)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    R. Chi, Z. Xu, J. Yu, and Z, He: in Rare Earth Elements 2013. Metallurgical Society of CIM, Montreal, QC, 2013, pp. 37–46Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    C.K. Gupta, N. Krishnamurthy, Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 2005)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    J.A. Whitehead, J. Zhang, N. Pereira, A. McCluskey, G.A. Lawrance, Hydrometallurgy 88, 109–20 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    P. Nockemann, B. Thijs, S. Pittois, J. Thoen, C. Glorieux, K. Van Hecke, L. Van Meervelt, B. Kirchner, K. Binnemans, J. Phys. Chem. B 100, 20978–92 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    A.P. Abbott, G. Capper, D.L. Davies, P. Shikora, Miner. Process. Extr. Metall. 115(1), 15–18 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    C Bryan, D. Richers, H.T. Anderson, and T. Gray: Tetra Tech Report to Leonardo Technologies, Inc., DE-FE004002, 2015Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    A.P. Abbott, G. Capper, D.L. Davies, R.K. Rasheed, V. Tambyrajah, Chem. Commun. 1, 70–71 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    P. Painter, N. Pulati, R. Cetiner, M. Sobkowiak, G. Mitchell, J. Mathews, Energy Fuels 24, 1848–53 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    E.G. Williams, R.E. Bergenback, W.S. Falla, S. Udagawa, J. Sedim. Petrol. 38(4), 1179–93 (1968)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    G.A. Moldoveanu, V.G. Papangelakis, Hydrometallurgy 131–132, 158–66 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International (ASM) and The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter L. Rozelle
    • 1
  • Aditi B. Khadilkar
    • 2
  • Nuerxida Pulati
    • 2
  • Nari Soundarrajan
    • 2
  • Mark S. Klima
    • 2
  • Morgan M. Mosser
    • 3
  • Charles E. Miller
    • 4
  • Sarma V. Pisupati
    • 2
  1. 1.Office of Fossil EnergyU.S. Department of EnergyWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Energy and Mineral EngineeringThe Pennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  3. 3.National Energy Technology LaboratoryU.S. Department of EnergyMorgantownUSA
  4. 4.National Energy Technology LaboratoryU.S. Department of EnergyPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations