An experimental methodology for the concurrent characterization of multiple parameters influencing nanoscale friction
- 89 Downloads
A structured transdisciplinary method for the experimental determination of friction in the nanometric domain is proposed in this paper. The dependence of nanoscale friction on multiple process parameters on these scales, which comprise normal forces, sliding velocities, and temperature, was studied via the lateral force microscopy approach. The procedure used to characterize the stiffness of the probes used, and especially the influence of adhesion on the obtained results, is thoroughly described. The analyzed thin films were obtained by using either atomic layer or pulsed laser deposition. The developed methodology, based on elaborated design of experiments algorithms, was successfully implemented to concurrently characterize the dependence of nanoscale friction in the multidimensional space defined by the considered process parameters. This enables the establishment of a novel methodology that extends the current state-of-the-art of nanotribological studies, as it allows not only the gathering of experimental data, but also the ability to do so systematically and concurrently for several influencing variables at once. This, in turn, creates the basis for determining generalizing correlations of the value of nanoscale friction in any multidimensional experimental space. These developments create the preconditions to eventually extend the available macro- and mesoscale friction models to a true multiscale model that will considerably improve the design, modelling and production of MEMS devices, as well as all precision positioning systems aimed at micro- and nanometric accuracy and precision.
Keywordsnanoscale friction lateral force microscopy experimental determination methodology multivariate space contact mechanics
The work described in this paper is enabled by using the equipment funded via the ERDF project RC.2.2.06-0001 “Research Infrastructure for Campus-based Laboratories at the University of Rijeka — RISK”, as well as via the support of the University of Rijeka grants uniri-tehnic-18-32 “Advanced mechatronics devices for smart technological solutions” and 4581 “Measuring, modelling and compensating friction in high-precision devices: From macro- to nanometric scale”. The work was partially supported also by the Croatian Science Foundation project IP-11-2013-2753 “Laser Cold Plasma Interaction and Diagnostics”. The GoSumD software is provided by AIMdyn, Inc.
- Al-Bender F, Lampaert V, Swevers J. Modeling of dry sliding friction dynamics: From heuristic models to physically motivated models and back. Chaos 14(2): 446—460 (2004)Google Scholar
- Kamenar E, Zelenika S. Nanometric positioning accuracy in the presence of presliding and sliding friction: Modelling, identification and compensation. Mech Based Des Struc Mach 45(1): 111–126 (2017Google Scholar
- Zelenika S. Analytical and experimental characterization of ball-groove contact problems. In Proceedings of the 3 rd DAAAM International Conference on Advanced Technologies for Developing Countries, Split, Croatia, 2004: 75–80.Google Scholar
- Manini N, Mistura G, Paolicelli G, Tosatti E, Vanossi A. Current trends in the physics of nanoscale friction. Adv Phys 2(3): 569–590 (2017)Google Scholar
- University of Rijeka, Croatia. Equipment of the centre for micro- and nanosciences and technologies.Google Scholar
- University of Rijeka, Croatia. Centre for micro- and nanosciences and technologies. https://doi.org/nanori.uniri.hr/, 2018.
- AIMdyn System Analytics, Engineering Consulting and Software Development. GoSUMD software. https://doi.org/aimdyn.com/gosumd, 2018.
- Perčić M, Zelenika S, Mezic I, Peter R, Krstulović N. Experimental approach to establishing a model of nanoscale friction. In Proceedings of the 18th EUSPEN International Conference, Cranfield, UK, 2018: 63–64.Google Scholar
- Meljanac D, Juraic K, Plodinec M, Siketić Z, Gracin D, Krstulović N, Salamon K, Skenderović H, Kregar Z, Rakić I Š, et al. Influence of RF excitation during pulsed laser deposition in oxygen atmosphere on the structural properties and luminescence of nanocrystalline ZnO:Al thin films. J Vac Sci Technol A 34(2): 021514 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wagner C D, Riggs W M, Davis L E, Moulder J F, Muilenberg G E. Handbook of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Eden Prairie (USA): Perkin-Elmer Corporation, 1979.Google Scholar
- Payne B P, Biesinger M C, McIntyre N S. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of reactions on chromium metal and chromium oxide surfaces. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phenomena 184(1–2): 29–37 (2011)Google Scholar
- Bruker. Stylus Profilometers Dektak XT. https://doi.org/www.bruker.com/products/surface-and-dimensional-analysis/stylus-profilometers/dektak-xt/overview.html, 2018.
- Bruker. AFM probes SNL-10. https://doi.org/www.brukerafmprobes.com/p-3693-snl-10.aspx, 2018.
- Belikov S, Alexander J, Wall C, Yermolenko I, Magonov S, Malovichko I. Thermal tune method for AFM oscillatory resonant imaging in air and liquid. In Proceedings of 2014 American Control Conference, Portland, OR, USA, 2014: 1009–1014.Google Scholar
- Perčić M, Zelenika S, Kamenar E. Issues in validation of friction in the nanometric domain. In Proceedings of the 17th EUSPEN International Conference, Cranfield, UK, 2017: 105–106.Google Scholar
- Sader J E. Parallel beam approximation for V-shaped atomic force microscope cantilevers. Rev Sci Instrum 66(9): 4583–4587 (1995Google Scholar
- MIKROMASCH. Test structures — TGF11 series. https://doi.org/www.spmtips.com/test-structures-TGF11-series.html, 2018.
- University of Trieste, Italy. Laboratorio MOSE. https://doi.org/www.mose.units.it/default.aspx, 2018.
- Bruker. AFM Probes — RS titanium roughness sample. https://doi.org/www.brukerafmprobes.com/a-3552-rs.aspx, 2018.
- Mandel J. The Statistical Analysis of Experimental Data. New York (USA): John Wiley & Sons, 1964.Google Scholar
Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.
The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.
To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.