Advertisement

Friction

pp 1–11 | Cite as

Electro-tribological properties of diamond like carbon coatings

  • Iñigo BracerasEmail author
  • Iñigo Ibáñez
  • Santiago Dominguez-Meister
  • Xabier Velasco
  • Marta Brizuela
  • Iñaki Garmendia
Open Access
Research Article
  • 125 Downloads

Abstract

Diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings typically present good self-lubricating tribological properties that could be of interest in sliding dielectric contacts in multiple electrical applications. In this work electro-tribological studies have been performed on several DLC coatings against aluminum in different humidity conditions, in which the coefficients of friction (CoFs) and electrical contact resistance (ECR) were continuously monitored. Results show that CoF and ECR data can be linked to the properties of the coatings (thickness, finishing, microstructure, residual stresses, and wettability) and the degradation modes of their tribological and electrical properties. Therefore, electro-tribological data can provide valuable information about the performance of dielectric coatings, the reasons behind it, and assist in the development of the coatings. ECR also shows potential for on-line monitoring of coated parts in operation.

Keywords

DLC electro-tribology ECR–electrical contact resistance coefficient of friction 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by FUTURE GRIDS-2020, Frontiers, and nG-17 projects (Elkartek, Economic Development Department at the Basque Government).

References

  1. [1]
    Grill A. Diamond-like carbon: State of the art. Diam Relat Mater 8(2–5): 428–434 (1999)Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Grill A. Electrical and optical properties of diamond-like carbon. Thin Solid Films 355–356: 189–193 (1999)Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Bansal D G, Streator J L. Effect of operating conditions on tribological response of Al–Al sliding electrical interface. Tribol Lett 43(1): 43–54 (2011)Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Zhang Y Z, Yang Z H, Song K X, Pang X J, Shangguan B. Triboelectric behaviors of materials under high speeds and large currents. Friction 1(3): 259–270 (2013)Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Hombo R, Takeno T, Fontaine J, Miki H, Kato N, Nozu T, Inayoshi N, Belin N, Tagaki T. Tribological and electric contact behaviour of metal/DLC nanocomposite coating on brass substrate. In 40th Leeds-Lyon Symposium on Tribology & Tribochemistry Forum 2013, Lyon, France, 2013.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    He M Y, Lee S, Yeo C D. Investigating atomic structure of thin carbon film under mechanical stress and frictional heat generation. Surf Coat Technol 261: 79–85 (2015)Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Jiang X J, Pan F Q, Shao G Q, Huang J, Hong J, Zhou A C. Prediction of electrical contact endurance subject to micro-slip wear using friction energy dissipation approach. Friction 1–14 (2018) doi: 10.1007/s40544-018-0230-xGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Fan X Q, Xue Q J, Wang L P. Carbon-based solid–liquid lubricating coatings for space applications–A review. Friction 3(3): 191–207 (2015)Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Erdemir A, Eryilmaz O. Achieving superlubricity in DLC films by controlling bulk, surface, and tribochemistry. Friction 2(2): 140–155 (2014)Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Sutton D C, Limbert G, Stewart D, Wood R J K. The friction of diamond-like carbon coatings in a water environment. Friction 1(3): 210–221 (2013)Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Vetter J. 60 years of DLC coatings: Historical highlights and technical review of cathodic arc processes to synthesize various DLC types, and their evolution for industrial applications. Surf Coat Technol 257: 213–240 (2014)Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Donnet C, Erdemir A. Tribology of Diamond-like Carbon Films Fundamentals and Applications. New York (USA): Springer, 2008.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Miyake S, Shindo T, Miyake M. Deposition and tribology of electroconductive and wear-resistant nanocomposite solid lubricant films composed of carbon and silver or gold. Tribol let 61(1): 6 (2016)Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Grandin M, Wiklund U. Influence of mechanical and electrical load on a copper/copper-graphite sliding electrical contact. Tribol Int 121: 1–9 (2018)Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Bewilogua K, Braüer G, Dietz A, Gäbler J, Goch G, Karpuschewski B, Szyszka B. Surface technology for automotive engineering. CIRP Ann 58(2): 608–627 (2009)Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Field S K, Jarratt M, Teer D G. Tribological properties of graphite-like and diamond-like carbon coatings. Tribol Int 37(11–12): 949–956 (2004)Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Oñate J I, Comin M, Braceras I, Garcia A, Viviente J L, Brizuela M, Garagorri N, Peris J L, Alava J I. Wear reduction effect on ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene by application of hard coatings and ion implantation on cobalt chromium alloy, as measured in a knee wear simulation machine. Surf Coat Technol 142–144: 1056–1062 (2001)Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Brizuela M, Garcia-Luis A, Viviente J L, Braceras I, Oñate J I. Tribological study of lubricious DLC biocompatible coatings. J Mater Sci Mater Med 13(12): 1129–1133 (2002)Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Grill A. Tribology of diamondlike carbon and related materials: An updated review. Surf Coat Technol 94–95: 507–513 (1997)Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Liu Y, Erdemir A, Meletis E I. A study of the wear mechanism of diamond-like carbon films. Surf Coat Technol 82(1–2): 48–56 (1996)Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Liu Y, Erdemir A, Meletis E I. An investigation of the relationship between graphitization and frictional behavior of DLC coatings. Surf Coat Technol 86–87: 564–568 (1996)Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Erdemir A. Genesis of super-low friction and wear in diamondlike carbon films. Tribol Int 37(11–12): 1005–1012 (2004)Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Luo D B, Fridrici V, Kapsa P. A systematic approach for the selection of tribological coatings. Wear 271(9–10): 2132–2143 (2011)Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Liu Y, Erdemir A, Meletis E I. Influence of environmental parameters on the frictional behavior of DLC coatings. Surf Coat Technol 94–95: 463–468 (1997)Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Tian P Y, Tian Y, Shan L, Meng Y G, Zhang X J. A correlation analysis method for analyzing tribological states using acoustic emission, frictional coefficient, and contact resistance signals. Friction 3(1): 36–46 (2015)Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Vakis A I, Yastrebov V A, Scheibert J, Nicola L, Dini D, Minfray C, Almqvist A, Paggi M, Lee S, Limbert G, et al. Modeling and simulation in tribology across scales: An overview. Tribol Int 125: 169–199 (2018)Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Clarke A, Weeks I J J, Evans H P, Snidle R W. An investigation into mixed lubrication conditions using electrical contact resistance techniques. Tribol Int 93: 709–716 (2016)Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Bucca G, Collina A. Electromechanical interaction between carbon-based pantograph strip and copper contact wire: A heuristic wear model. Tribol Int 92: 47–56 (2015)Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Braceras I, Ibáñez I, Taher M, Mao F, Del Barrio A, de Urturi S S, Berastegui P, Andersson A M, Jansson U. On the electro-tribological properties and degradation resistance of silver-aluminum coatings. Wear 414–415: 202–211 (2018)Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Patton S T, Zabinski J S. Advanced tribometer for in situ studies of friction, wear, and contactcondition—Advanced tribometer for friction and wear studies. Tribol Lett 13(4): 263–273 (2002)Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Simonovic K, Kalin M. Experimentally derived friction model to evaluate the anti-wear and friction-modifier additives in steel and DLC contacts. Tribol Int 111: 116–137 (2017)Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Wang P F, Takagi T, Takeno T, Miki H. Early fatigue damage detecting sensors—A review and prospects. Sens Actuators A Phys 198: 46–60 (2013)Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Majdoub F, Belin M, Martin J M, Perret-Liaudet J, Kano M, Yoshida K. Exploring low friction of lubricated DLC coatings in no-wear conditions with a new relaxation tribometer. Tribol Int 65: 278–285 (2013)Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Ferrari A C. Determination of bonding in diamond-like carbon by Raman spectroscopy. Diam Relat Mater. 11(3–6): 1053–1061 (2002)Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Ferrari A C, Robertson J. Interpretation of Raman spectra of disordered and amorphous carbon. Phys Rev B 61(20): 14095–14107 (2000)Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Robertson J. Diamond-like amorphous carbon. Mat Sci and Eng R Rep 37(4–6): 129–281 (2002)Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Cui W G, Lai Q B, Zhang L, Wang F M. Quantitative measurements of sp3 content in DLC films with Raman spectroscopy. Surf Coat Technol 205(7): 1995–1999 (2010)Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    IEC/TS 62073 Guidance on the measurement of wettability of insulator surfaces. Geneva: IEC International Electrotechnical Commission, 2003.Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Braceras I, Ibáñez I, Domínguez-Meister S, Urgebain A, Sánchez-García JA, Larrañaga A, Garmendia I. Corrosion preserving high density plasma treatment of precipitation hardening stainless steel. Surf Coat Technol 355: 174–180 (2018)Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    Deng J G, Braun M. Residual stress and microhardness of DLC multilayer coatings. Diam Relat Mater 5(3–5): 478–482 (1996)Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    Wang J, Liu G C, Wang L D, Deng X L, Xu J. Studies of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited on stainless steel substrate with Si/SiC intermediate layers. Chin Phys B 17(8): 3108–3114 (2008)Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    Nakamura M, Takagawa Y, Miura K I, Kobata J, Zhu W L, Nishiike N, Arao K, Marin E, Pezzotti G. Structural alteration induced by substrate bias voltage variation in diamond-like carbon films fabricated by unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Diam Relat Mater 90: 214–220 (2018)Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    Chen Z, Liu P, Verhoeven J D, Gibson E D. Electrotribological behavior of Cu-15 vol.% Cr in situ composites under dry sliding. Wear 203–204: 28–35 (1997)Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Savage R H. Graphite lubrication. J Appl Phys 19(1): 1–10 (1948)Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    Deacon R F, Goodman J F. Lubrication by lamellar solids. Proc Royal Soc London. Ser A, Math Phys Sci 243(1235): 464–482 (1958)Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    Wang F, Lu Z B, Wang L P, Zhang G G, Xu Q J. Effect of tribochemistry on friction behavior of fluorinated amorphous carbon films against aluminum. Surf Coat Technol 304: 150–159 (2016)Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    Gardos M N. Tribology and wear behavior of diamond. In Synthetic Diamond: Emerging CVD Science and Technology. Spear K E, Dismukes J E, Eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1994: 419.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The author(s) 2019

Open Access: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit https://doi.org/creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iñigo Braceras
    • 1
    Email author
  • Iñigo Ibáñez
    • 1
  • Santiago Dominguez-Meister
    • 1
  • Xabier Velasco
    • 2
  • Marta Brizuela
    • 1
  • Iñaki Garmendia
    • 2
  1. 1.Tecnalia Research & InnovationDonostia-San SebastiánSpain
  2. 2.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentUniversity of the Basque Country UPV/EHUDonostia-San SebastiánSpain

Personalised recommendations