, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 429–436 | Cite as

Preparation of Ag2O modified silica abrasives and their chemical mechanical polishing performances on sapphire

Open Access
Research Article


The chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process has become a widely accepted global planarization technology. The abrasive material is one of the key elements in CMP. In the presented paper, an Ag-doped colloidal SiO2 abrasive is synthesized by a seed-induced growth method. It is characterized by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to analyze the composition and morphology. The CMP performance of the Ag-doped colloidal silica abrasives on sapphire substrates is investigated. Experiment results show the material removal rate (MRR) of Ag-doped colloidal silica abrasives is obviously higher than that of pure colloidal silica abrasives under the same testing conditions. The surfaces that are polished by composite colloidal abrasives exhibit lower surface roughness (Ra) than those polished by pure colloidal silica abrasives. Furthermore, the acting mechanism of Ag-doped colloidal SiO2 composite abrasives in sapphire CMP is analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and analytical results show that element Ag forms Ag2O which acts as a catalyst to promote the chemical effect in CMP and leads to the increasing of MRR.


chemical mechanical polishing Ag-doped colloidal silica abrasive sapphire material removal rate 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51475279).


  1. [1]
    Gentilman R L, Maguire E A, Starrett H S, Hartnett T M, Kirchner H P. Strength and transmittance of sapphire and strengthened sapphire. J Am Ceram Soc 64(9): C–116–C–127 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Li J, Nutt S R, Kirby K W. surface modification of sapphire by magnesium-ion implantation. J Am Ceram Soc 82(11): 3260–3262 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Niu X, Liu Y. Method of surface treatment on sapphire substrate. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 16: s732–s734 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Park H, Chan H M. A novel process for the generation of pristine sapphire surfaces. Thin Solid Films 422(1): 135–140 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Nakamura S. InGaN-based laser diodes. Annual Review of Materials Research 28(1): 125–152 (2003)Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Duboz J Y. GaN as seen by the industry. Phys Status Solidi A 171(1): 5–14 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Shi X, Pan G, Zhou Y. A study of chemical products formed on sapphire (0001) during chemical–mechanical polishing. Surf Coat Technol 270: 206–220 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Lee H, Park S, Jeong H. Evaluation of environmental impacts during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) for sustainable manufacturing. J Mech Sci Technol. 27(2): 511–518 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Deng H, Endo K, Yamamura K. Competition between surface modification and abrasive polishing: A method of controlling the surface atomic structure of 4H-SiC(0001). Sci Rep 5: 1–5 (2015)Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Zhu H, Tessaroto L A, Sabia R. Chemical mechanical polishing(CMP) anisotropy in sapphire. Appl Surf Sci 236: 120–130 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Xu W, Lu X, Pan G, Lei Y, Luo J. Effects of the ultrasonic flexural vibration on the interaction between the abrasive particles: pad and sapphire substrate during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Appl Surf Sci 257: 2905–2911 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Merricks D. Alumina abrasives for sapphire substrate polishing. ECS Trans 32(1): 1035–1039 (2011)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Aida H, Doi T, Takeda H, Katakura H, Kim SW, Koyama K, Yamazaki T, Uneda M. Ultraprecision CMP for sapphire, GaN, and SiC for advanced optoelectronics materials. In the 2nd International Symposium on Hybrid Materials and Processing (HyMaP), Busan, South Korea, 2011: S41–S46.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Xu W, Lu X, Pan G, Lei Y, Luo J. Ultrasonic flexural vibration assisted chemical mechanical polishing for sapphire substrate. Appl Surf Sci 256: 3936–3940 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Wang L Y, Zhang K L, Song Z T, Feng S L. Chemical mechanical polishingand a succedent reactive ion etching processing of sapphire wafer. J Electrochem Soc 154(3): H166–H169 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Xiong W, Chu X F, DongY P, Bi L, Ye M F, Sun W Q. Effects of different abrasives on sapphire chemical-mechanical polishing. J Synth Cryst 42(6): 1064–1069 (2013)Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Zhu H L. Chemical mechanical polishing(CMP) of sapphire. Ph.D Thesis. New Jersey (America): Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 2002.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Xu L, Zou C L, Shi X L, Pan G S, Luo G H, Zhou Y. Fe-Nx/C assisted chemical-mechanical polishing for improving the removal rate of sapphire. Appl Surf Sci 343: 115–120 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Bai L S, Xiong W, Chu X F, Dong Y P, Zhang W B. Preparation of nano SiO2/CeO2 composite particles and their application to CMP on sapphire substrates. Optics and Precision Engineering 22(5): 1289–1295 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Lei H, Chu F, Xiao B. Preparation of silica/ceria nano composite abrasive and its CMP behavior on hard disk substrate. Microelectron Eng 87: 1747–1750 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Lei H, Zhang P. Preparation of alumina/silica core-shell abrasives and their CMP behavior. Appl Surf Sci 253: 8754–8761 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Ma P, Lei H, Chen R L. Preparation of Mg-doped colloidal silica abrasives and their chemical mechanical polishing performances on sapphire. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 16(9): 9951–9957 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Hughes A E, Sexton B A. Comments on the use of implanted Ar as a binding energy reference. J Electron Spectrosc Relat Phemon 50(2): c15–c18 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Vovk E A, Budnikov A T, Dobrotvorskaya M V, Krivonogov S I, Dan’ko A Y. Mechanism of the interaction between Al2O3 and SiO2 during the chemical-mechanical polishing of sapphire with silicon dioxide. Journal of Surface Investigation, X-ray, Synchrotron and Neutron Techniques 6(1): 115–121 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Hagio T, Takase A, Umebayashi S. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of beta-sialons. J Mater Sci Lett 11: 878 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The author(s) 2017

Open Access: The articles published in this journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center of Nano-Science and Nano-TechnologyShanghai UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations