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Vitamin-Induced Anaphylaxis

Abstract

Purpose of review

This paper aimed to summarize and review the known data on anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity reactions to vitamins.

Recent Findings

Vitamins A, C, D, and E seem to be extremely safe compounds, with few or no related case of anaphylaxis to them. Vitamin B1 is considered the most allergenic vitamin. Immediate reactions are unusual, but urticaria and anaphylaxis to thiamine intravenous administration have been described. Vitamin B12 hypersensitivity is also infrequent. Reactions occur mostly in patients receiving long-term supplementation. Desensitization is mandatory for patients with hypersensitivity that have clinical indication for therapy with this vitamin. Vitamin K1 injection can induce adverse reactions that resemble hypersensitivity or anaphylaxis and may include immunologic or non-immunologic mediated mechanisms. These reactions are not well understood and can arise because of the vitamin K1 itself and/or because of the vehicle associated to it.

Summary

Anaphylatic reactions to vitamins are uncommon. When they occur, a complete investigation is recommended to avoid mislabeling of patients as allergic. However, skin and provocation test protocols vary and should be standardized, as well as those for desensitization.

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    Correspondence to Luis Felipe Ensina.

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    Luis Felipe Ensina, Fernanda Sales da Cunha, Patricia Guerzet Ayres Bastos, Fabiana Andrade Nunes, and Inês Cristina Camelo-Nunes declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.

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    Ensina, L.F., da Cunha, F.S., Bastos, P.G.A. et al. Vitamin-Induced Anaphylaxis. Curr Treat Options Allergy (2020) doi:10.1007/s40521-020-00246-y

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    Keywords

    • Anaphylaxis
    • Vitamin
    • Hypersensitivity
    • Desensitization