Osteosarcopenia among postmenopausal women and handgrip strength as a practical method for predicting the risk

  • Buliana Hamad
  • Sibel BasaranEmail author
  • Ilke Coskun Benlidayi
Original Article



Osteosarcopenia is a recently described geriatric syndrome. Studies concerning its role on physical function are relatively few.


To evaluate the prevalence of osteosarcopenia and to analyze its relationship with physical function among postmenopausal women.


Demographic and clinical data, fracture risk, and osteosarcopenia risk factors of 140 postmenopausal women were evaluated between April 2018 and September 2018. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorbtiometry. Handgrip strength and physical performance test results were recorded. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, whereas osteopenia/osteoporosis was diagnosed according to the World Health Organisation criteria.


The mean age of the patients was 64.1 ± 8.9 years. Among the patients, 64.3% (n = 90) were found to be osteosarcopenic. Insufficient protein and calcium intake and low physical activity level were found to be the most frequent risk factors. When further analysis was done according to the osteosarcopenia, sarcopenia-only, and osteoporosis-only groups, osteosarcopenia group revealed the lowest body mass index, skeletal mass index, handgrip strength values, and physical performance test results. The handgrip strength was found to be a determinant of osteosarcopenia and each 1-unit decrease in handgrip strength increased the risk of osteosarcopenia by 1.162 times (95% CI 1.086–1.25).


The prevalence of osteosarcopenia is high among postmenopausal women. It is recommended to be aware of osteosarcopenia while managing osteoporotic patients, to use handgrip strength as a simple screening method, and to consider sarcopenia treatment as an important component of osteoporosis prevention and treatment.


Handgrip strength Osteopenia Osteoporosis Osteosarcopenia Postmenopausal Sarcopenia 



The authors would like to thank Assoc Prof Ilker Unal, PhD from the Department of Biostatistics for his contribution to the statistical analysis of the study.

Author contributions

All authors contributed to the study conception, design, and interpretation of data for the work. Material preparation, data collection, and analysis were performed by Buliana Hamad and Sibel Basaran. The first draft of the manuscript was written by Buliana Hamad and all authors revised it critically for important intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


This study was supported by the Research Fund of the Cukurova University (Project No: TTU-2018-10936).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Clinical Research Ethical Committee of the Cukurova University (Date: 02.03.2018, No:75) and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Written informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Faculty of MedicineCukurova UniversityAdanaTurkey

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