Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, oxidized LDL and mortality in the elderly
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Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is a liver enzyme involved in the metabolism of glutathione (GSH), a major antioxidant in humans. GGT is a risk factor for mortality in young and middle-aged individuals but this association has been poorly investigated in the elderly.
We studied the relationship between GGT and all-cause mortality and tested whether oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) modify this association in a cohort of 1038 elderly individuals.
During the observation time (median 9 years), 401 individuals died. In a Cox regression model adjusting for potential confounders, GGT was an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality [HR (20U/L increase in serum GGT): 1.11, 95% CI 1.02–1.21, P = 0.02]. Furthermore, increasing levels of oxLDL amplified the risk excess for all-cause mortality associated with GGT (P for the effect modification = 0.003).
In the elderly, serum GGT is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality and circulating oxLDL amplify the magnitude of this association.
KeywordsGGT Mortality Elderly oxLDL
This work was supported by the National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Research Project “Aging: molecular and technological innovations for improving the health of the elderly population” (Prot. MIUR 2867 25.11.2011). The funding of the study complies with Ethical Standards.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All the authors declare no conflict of interest.
The InCHIANTI study protocol met the criteria outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki and the Italian National Research Council on Aging ethics committee approved the study protocol in September 1998.
Written informed consent was obtained from each participant by the InCHIANTI investigators.