Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 31, Issue 11, pp 1685–1688 | Cite as

The Frailty Index in centenarians and their offspring

  • Beatrice ArosioEmail author
  • E. Ferri
  • M. Casati
  • D. Mari
  • G. Vitale
  • M. Cesari
Short Communication


Frailty has been indicated as a way for capturing biological aging of the individual and Frailty Index (FI) may serve for this purpose. This study designed the FI in a cohort of centenarians, their offspring and control subjects sex- and age-matched with offspring. The FI mean value was 0.47 (SD 0.13) in centenarians, 0.15 (SD 0.12) in their offspring, and 0.22 (SD 0.14) in controls (p < 0.001). The difference between offspring and controls was statistically significant (p = 0.003). The correlation between FI and age was significant in offspring (r = 0.46, p < 0.001), close to significance in controls (r = 0.25, p = 0.08) and not significant in centenarians. Our study confirms that FI is a marker of biological age useful to discriminate different degrees of frailty even at extremely advanced age.


Frailty Frailty index Centenarians Biological aging 



This work was supported by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (PRIN 2006 and PRIN 2009 to DM).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights statement

All procedures involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Ethical approval

The protocol received approval from the Ethical Committee of the Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan (Prot. no. 2035, amendment 30/11/2011).

Informed consent

An informed consent was obtained from all participants.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geriatric Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore PoliclinicoUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Sciences and Community HealthUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  3. 3.Istituto Auxologico Italiano, IRCCS, Laboratorio Sperimentale di Ricerche di Neuroendocrinologia Geriatrica ed OncologicaCusano MilaninoItaly

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