Association between dietary nutrient intake and sarcopenia in the SarcoPhAge study
It has been suggested that a balanced nutritional intake may be useful in preventing or even reversing sarcopenia.
To describe cross-sectional associations between dietary nutrient intake and sarcopenia.
Subjects recruited from the SarcoPhAge study population completed a food frequency questionnaire. The micronutrient and macronutrient intake was evaluated in both sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic participants. The Nutritional Belgian Recommendations of 2016 were used, i.e., adequate intake and estimated average requirement (EAR). For micronutrients, the prevalence of insufficient intake was estimated as the proportion of subjects whose intake was below the EAR.
A total of 331 subjects (mean age of 74.8 ± 5.9 years, 58.9% women) had complete data and were included in this study. Among them, 51 were diagnosed with sarcopenia (15.4%). In the fully adjusted model, analyses revealed that sarcopenic subjects consumed significantly lower amounts of two macronutrients (proteins, lipids) and five micronutrients (potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, and vitamin K) than non-sarcopenic subjects (all p values < 0.005). A significantly increased prevalence of insufficiency was found for sarcopenic subjects compared to non-sarcopenic subjects for potassium, magnesium, iron, calcium and vitamins E and C (all p values < 0.005). The prevalence of sarcopenic subjects who were also below the Nutritional Belgian Recommendations for protein and lipids was significantly higher than that of non-sarcopenic subjects.
Discussion and conclusions
Sarcopenic subjects seem to consume significantly reduced amounts of many micronutrients and macronutrients compared to non-sarcopenic subjects. These results suggest that a poorly balanced diet may be associated with sarcopenia and poor musculoskeletal health, although prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
KeywordsSarcopenia Micronutrient Macronutrient Nutrition Diet Muscle health
We would first thank all participants of the SarcoPhAge study for the time they dedicated in our research and for their fidelity over the years. We would like to acknowledge Pr. Michèle Guillaume, head of the Department of Public Health of the University of Liège for her help and support in designing our Food Frequency Questionnaire. Moreover, we thank Nathalie Arnault, biostatistician from the «Equipe de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle (EREN, UMR U1153 Inserm/U1125 Inra/Cnam/Universités Paris 5, 7 et 13, Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie et Statistiques Sorbonne Paris Cité (CRESS)» for their support in analysing results of the Food Frequency Questionnaire.
CB and ML are supported by a fellowship from the FNRS (Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique—FRSFNRS—http://www.frs-fnrs.be).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
All procedures performed in the studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee as well as with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 14.Beaudart C, Gillain S, Petermans J et al (2014) Sarcopenia: what’s new in 2014. Rev Med Liege 69:251–257Google Scholar
- 20.Beaudart C, Rabenda V, Simmons M et al (2017) Effects of protein, essential amino acids, B-hydroxy B-methylbutyrate, creatine, dehydroepiandrosterone and fatty acid supplementation on muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance in older people aged 60 years and over. A systematic review of the literature. J Nutr Heal Aging. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-017-0934-z Google Scholar
- 28.Arnault N (2013) Table de Composition des Aliments, étude NutriNet-Santé. [Food Composition Table, NutriNet-Santé Study]. Les éditions INSERM/Economica, Paris (in French)Google Scholar
- 33.ter Borg S, de Groot LCPGM, Mijnarends DM et al (2016) Differences in nutrient intake and biochemical nutrient status between sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic older adults—results from the maastricht sarcopenia study. J Am Med Dir Assoc 17:393–401. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2015.12.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.van Dronkelaar C, van Velzen A, Abdelrazek M et al (2018) Minerals and sarcopenia; the role of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, sodium, and zinc on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in older adults: a systematic review. J Am Med Dir Assoc 19:6.e3–11.e3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2017.05.026 Google Scholar