Presbyesophagus presented with chronic intermittent dysphagia

  • Botros Shenoda
  • Kathleen C. Degen
  • William FordEmail author
Case Report


Age-related physiological changes in the gastrointestinal system are common, variable in intensity and extent, and likely to be influenced by several factors including normal aging processes, presence of comorbidities, medication exposure, and sedentary lifestyle. The causes underlying the increased incidence of gastrointestinal conditions in older patients are likely to be complex and multifactorial. Extrinsic factors, such as exercise, diet and the microbiota, may influence both GI function and cellular properties during aging.

Presbyesophagus is the term used to describe the age-related changes in the esophagus, including decreased lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, upward displacement of the lower esophageal sphincter into the intrathoracic position, and delayed emptying of the esophagus in association with repetitive non-peristaltic (sometimes called “tertiary”) esophageal contractions. Microscopically there is reduction in myenteric ganglion cells, thickening of...


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Statement of human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical sta ndards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from the individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Botros Shenoda
    • 1
  • Kathleen C. Degen
    • 1
  • William Ford
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineDrexel University College of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicineAbington-Jefferson HospitalAbingtonUSA

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