Advertisement

Optic flow improves step width and length in older adults while performing dual task

  • Taylor Leeder
  • Farahnaz Fallahtafti
  • Molly Schieber
  • Sara A. Myers
  • Julie Blaskewicz Boron
  • Jennifer M. YentesEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Background

Dual-task paradigms are used to investigate gait and cognitive declines in older adults (OA). Optic-flow is a virtual reality environment where the scene flows past the subject while walking on a treadmill, mimicking real-life locomotion.

Aims

To investigate cost of environment (no optic-flow v. optic-flow) while completing single- and dual-task walking and dual-task costs (DTC; single- v. dual-task) in optic-flow and no optic-flow environments.

Methods

Twenty OA and seven younger adults (YA) walked on a self-paced treadmill in 3-min segments per task and both environments. Five task conditions included: no task, semantic fluency (category), phonemic fluency (letters), word reading, and serial-subtraction.

Results

OAs had a benefit of optic-flow compared to no optic-flow for step width (p = 0.015) and step length (p = 0.045) during letters compared to the YA. During letters, OA experienced improvement in step width DTC; whereas YA had a decrement in step width DTC from no optic-flow to optic-flow (p = 0.038). During serial-subtraction, OA had less step width DTC when compared to YA in both environments (p = 0.02).

Discussion

During letters, step width and step length improved in OA while walking in optic-flow. Also, step width DTC differed between the two groups. Sensory information from optic-flow appears to benefit OA. Letters relies more on verbal ability and word knowledge, which are preserved in aging. However, YA use a complex speech style during dual tasking, searching for complex words and an increased speed of speech.

Conclusions

OA can benefit from optic-flow by improving spatial gait parameters, specifically, step width, during dual-task walking.

Keywords

Dual task cost Gait Virtual reality Environment Spatiotemporal 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Angie Helseth for her assistance in data collection and processing.

Funding

This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (P20 GM109090 to SAM, JBB, JMY, and R01 HD090333 to SAM) and the University of Nebraska at Omaha Graduate Research and Creative Activity Fund (TL).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

40520_2018_1059_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (307 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 306 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    Bergen G, Stevens MR, Burns ER (2016) Falls and fall injuries among adults aged ≥ 65 years—united states, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 65:993–998.  https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6537a2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Springer S, Giladi N, Peretz C, Yogev G, Simon ES, Hausdorff JM (2006) Dual-tasking effects on gait variability: The role of aging, falls, and executive function. Mov Disord 21:950–957.  https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.20848 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Glisky EL (2007) Changes in cognitive function in human aging. In: Riddle DR (ed) Brain aging: Models, methods, and mechanisms. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Woollacott M, Shumway-Cook A (2002) Attention and the control of posture and gait: a review of an emerging area of research. Gait Posture 16:1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0966-6362(01)00156-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lundin-Olsson L, Nyberg L, Gustafson Y (1997) “Stops walking when talking” as a predictor of falls in elderly people. Lancet 349:2.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(97)24009-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Walshe EA, Patterson MR, Commins S, Roche RA (2015) Dual-task and electrophysiological markers of executive cognitive processing in older adult gait and fall-risk. Front Hum Neurosci 9:200.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2015.00200 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lindenberger U, Marsiske M, Baltes PB (2000) Memorizing while walking: increase in dual-task costs from young adulthood to old age. Psychol Aging 15:417–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Holtzer R, Mahoney JR, Izzetoglu M et al (2011) fNIRS study of walking and walking while talking in young and old individuals. J Gerontol Ser A Biol Sci Med Sci 66:879–887.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glr068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gibson JJ (1958) Visually controlled locomotion and visual orientation in animals. Br J Psychol 49:182–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sloot LH, van der Krogt MM, Harlaar J (2014) Effects of adding a virtual reality environment to different modes of treadmill walking. Gait Posture 39:939–945.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.12.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Levy F, Leboucher P, Rautureau G et al (2016) Fear of falling: efficacy of virtual reality associated with serious games in elderly people. Neuropsych Dis Treat 12:877–881.  https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S97809 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Parijat P, Lockhart TE, Liu J (2015) Effects of perturbation-based slip training using a virtual reality environment on slip-induced falls. Ann Biomed Eng 43:958.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-014-1128-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wechsler D (1981) Manual for the wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised. Psychological Corporation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schaie KW (1985) Schaie-thurstone adult mental abilities test (STAMAT). Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo AltoGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nasreddine ZS, Phillips NA, Bedirian V et al (2005) The montreal cognitive assessment, MoCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc 53:695–699.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53221.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    REITAN RM (1955) The relation of the trail making test to organic brain damage. J Consult Psychol 19:393–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Podsiadlo D, Richardson S (1991) The timed “up & go”: A test of basic functional mobility for frail elderly persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 39:142–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hernandez D, Rose DJ (2008) Predicting which older adults will or will not fall using the fullerton advanced balance scale. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 89:2309–2315.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2008.05.020 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wiens C, Denton W, Schieber M et al (2017) Reliability of a feedback-controlled treadmill algorithm dependent on the user’s behavior. Proc IEEE Int Conf Electro Inf Technol.  https://doi.org/10.1109/EIT.2017.8053423 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Troyer AK, Moscovitch M, Winocur G (1997) Clustering and switching as two components of verbal fluency: evidence from younger and older healthy adults. Neuropsychology 11:138–146.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0894-4105.11.1.138 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Troyer AK (2000) Normative data for clustering and switching on verbal fluency tasks. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 22:370–378.  https://doi.org/10.1076/1380-3395(200006)22:3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tombaugh TN, Kozak J, Rees L (1999) Normative data stratified by age and education for two measures of verbal fluency: FAS and animal naming. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 14:167–177.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0887-6177(97)00095-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Borkowski JG, Benton AL, Spreen O (1967) Word fluency and brain damage. Neuropsychologia.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0028-3932(67)90015-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Uttl B (2002) North american adult reading test: Age norms, reliability, and validity. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 24:1123–1137.  https://doi.org/10.1076/jcen.24.8.1123.8375 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Balota DA, Yap MJ, Cortese MJ et al (2007) The english lexicon project. Behav Res Methods 39:445–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Diener HC, Nutt JG (1997) Vestibular and cerebellar disorders of equilibrium and gait. In: Masdeu JC, Sudarsky L, Wolfson L (eds) Gait disorders of aging: falls and therapeutic strategies. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp 261–272Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gehlsen GM, Whaley MH (1990) Falls in the elderly: Part I, gait. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 71:735–738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chamberlin ME, Fulwider BD, Sanders SL et al (2005) Does fear of falling influence spatial and temporal gait parameters in elderly persons beyond changes associated with normal aging? J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60:1163–1167.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/60.9.1163 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jerome GJ, Ko SU, Kauffman D et al (2015) Gait characteristics associated with walking speed decline in older adults: Results from the baltimore longitudinal study of aging. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 60:239–243  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2015.01.007 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Perrone JA, Stone LS (1994) A model of self-motion estimation within primate extrastriate visual cortex. Vis Res 34(21):2917–2938.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0042-6989(94)90060-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sun HJ, Carey DP, Goodale MA (1992) A mammalian model of optic-flow utilization in the control of locomotion. Exp Brain Res 91:171–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Warren WH, Kay BA, Zosh WD et al (2001) Optic flow is used to control human walking. Nat Neurosci 4:213–216.  https://doi.org/10.1038/84054 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Coslett HB, Bowers D, Verfaellie M et al (1991) Frontal verbal amnesia. Phonological amnesia. Arch Neurol 48:949–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hughes DL, Bryan J (2002) Adult age differences in strategy use during verbal fluency performance. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 24:642–654.  https://doi.org/10.1076/jcen.24.5.642.1002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Riddle DR (2007) Brain aging: models, methods, and mechanisms, 1st edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Vaportzis E, Georgiou-Karistianis N, Stout JC (2013) Dual task performance in normal aging: a comparison of choice reaction time tasks. PLoS One 8:e60265.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060265 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kemper S, Schmalzried R, Hoffman L et al (2010) Aging and the vulnerability of speech to dual task demands. Psychol Aging 25:949–962.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020000 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fedorenko E, Gibson E, Rohde D (2007) The nature of working memory in linguistic, arithmetic and spatial integration processes. J Mem Lang 56:246–269.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2006.06.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kramer AF, Larish JL, Weber TA et al (1999) Training for executive control: task coordination strategies and aging. In: Gopher D, Koriat A (eds) Attention and performance XVII. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 616–652Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Andrade J, May J (2003) BIOS instant notes in cognitive psychology, 1st edn. CRC Press, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiomechanicsUniversity of Nebraska at OmahaOmahaUSA
  2. 2.Department of GerontologyUniversity of Nebraska at OmahaOmahaUSA

Personalised recommendations