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Effect of a 12-week mixed power training on physical function in dynapenic-obese older men: does severity of dynapenia matter?

  • Livia P. Carvalho
  • Charlotte H. Pion
  • Guy El Hajj Boutros
  • Pierrette Gaudreau
  • Stéphanie Chevalier
  • Marc Bélanger
  • José A. Morais
  • Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre
Original Article

Abstract

Introduction

Mobility disability affects nearly 15% of people aged 65 or over worldwide. Excess weight or obesity (OB), along with an accentuated loss of muscle strength (dynapenia), is recognized to be one of the most common risk factors for mobility impairment among the elderly.

Objective

To investigate the effect of a 12-week mixed power training (MPT high-velocity resistance training mixed with functional exercises) on physical function in obese older men exhibiting different severities of dynapenia.

Methods

Community-dwelling older men (69 ± 6 years) were assigned to the study if they were considered obese (OB, fat mass ≥ 25% body weight, BW) and to one of the two groups according to severity of dynapenia [(handgrip strength—HS)/BW]: type 1(OB-DY1) or type 2(OB-DY2), < 1 or 2SD from a young reference group. Participants followed a 12-week MPT, three times/week, 75 min/session. Main outcomes included the performance on the 4-m and 6-min walking tests, Timed Up and Go, stair and balance tests.

Results and discussion

At baseline, OB-DY1 performed better than OB-DY2 in all functional tests (p < 0.05). Following the intervention, medium-to-large training effect size (ES) were observed for fat (ES = 0.21) and lean (ES = 0.32, p < 0.001) masses, functional performance (ES 0.11–0.54, p < 0.05), HS (ES = 0.10, p < 0.05) and lower limb muscle strength (ES = 0.67, p < 0.001) and power (ES = 0.60, p < 0.05). Training-by-group interaction showed that OB-DY1 lost more FM (ES = 0.11, p = 0.03) and OB-DY2 improved more HS (ES = 0.19, p = 0.006) than their counterparts.

Conclusions

Seniors with obesity and severe dynapenia have poorer physical function than those in the early stage of dynapenia. Both seem to benefit from a high-velocity resistance training mixed with functional exercises, although by slightly different pathways.

Keywords

Resistance training Obesity Exercise Sarcopenia 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Réseau québécois de recherche sur le vieillissement (RQRV), a thematic network funded by Fonds de Recherche du Québec-Santé (FRQS); and the Groupe de recherche en activité physique adaptée (GRAPA) of the Université du Québec à Montréal (UQÀM). The Fond de Recherche du Québec-Santé (FRQS) supported MAL (Researcher fellowship J2) and LPC (Postdoctoral fellowship).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Statement of human and animal rights

The study obtained ethical approval from the Institutional Review Board and have been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants for inclusion in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Livia P. Carvalho
    • 1
    • 2
  • Charlotte H. Pion
    • 2
    • 3
  • Guy El Hajj Boutros
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pierrette Gaudreau
    • 4
  • Stéphanie Chevalier
    • 5
  • Marc Bélanger
    • 1
  • José A. Morais
    • 5
  • Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Département des Sciences de l’Activité PhysiqueUniversité du Québec à Montréal, (UQAM) Pavillon des sciences biologiques (SB)MontrealCanada
  2. 2.Centre de Recherche de l’Institut Universitaire de Gériatrie de MontréalUniversité de MontréalMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Département de BiologieUniversité du Québec à MontréalMontrealCanada
  4. 4.Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Faculté de MédecineUniversité de MontréalMontrealCanada
  5. 5.McGill University Health Centre, Research Institute and Geriatric Medicine, Faculty of MedicineMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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