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Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 101–107 | Cite as

The instruments used by the Italian centres for cognitive disorders and dementia to diagnose mild cognitive impairment (MCI)

  • Federica Limongi
  • Marianna NoaleEmail author
  • Angelo Bianchetti
  • Nicola Ferrara
  • Alessandro Padovani
  • Elio Scarpini
  • Marco Trabucchi
  • Stefania Maggi
  • for the MCI Working Group
Original Article

Abstract

Aims

The purpose of this study was to examine the tools used in Italy to diagnose mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

Methods

In collaboration with the Luigi Amaducci Research Consortium, the Italian Network of Alzheimer Evaluation Units prepared a questionnaire to describe how MCI is diagnosed in the Italian Centres for cognitive disorders and dementia (CCDD).

Results

Most of the ninety-two CCDDs participating in the survey were located in hospitals (54.7%); large percentages were coordinated by neurologists (50.8%) and geriatricians (44.6%). Almost all (98.5%) used the Mini Mental State Examination to diagnose MCI; the Clock Drawing Test was also frequently used (83.9%). Other neuropsychological, imaging and biomarker tests were utilized less frequently and a wide diversity in the instruments used was noted.

Conclusions

According to the results, diagnoses of MCI are based on a multitude of instruments, with major differences in the clinical assessment of geriatricians and neurologists. Standardized testing protocols, validated instruments and cut-off points need to be identified and adopted by the CCDDs for assessing MCI.

Keywords

Mild cognitive impairment Diagnosis tools Italian centres for cognitive disorders and dementia 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The “Survey on the instruments used by the Units Evaluating Alzheimer, now called Centres for Cognitive Disorders and Dementia, to reach a Mild Cognitive Impairment diagnosis” has been funded by an unrestricted grant by MSD ITALIA S.R.L.

The MCI Working Group:

Sara Antonucci (Chieti); Maria Grazia Arena (Messina); Stefano Avanzi (Mantova); Federica Barocco (Bergamo); Roberta Baschi (Palermo); Daniele Bellandi (Cremona); Carlo Adriano Biagini (Pistoia); Valentina Bono (Cuneo); Barbara Boselli (Vicenza); Gabriella Cacchiò (Ascoli Piceno); Emanuele Caggia (Ragusa); Veronica Caleri (Pistoia); Vincenzo Canonico (Napoli); Salvatore Caratozzolo (Brescia); Gabriele Carbone (Roma); Daniela Carta (Oristano); Maria Chiara Cavallini (Firenze); Giuliano Cerqua (Caserta); Alberto Cester (Venezia); Annalisa Chiari (Modena); Elisabetta Coppi (Monza e Brianza); Antonello Cossu (Oristano); Beatrice Cossu (Brescia); Maria Immacolata Cozzolino (Roma); Marina D’Agati (Palermo); Sanfilippo Daniele (Enna); Maria Letizia Del Re (Pescara); Babette Dijk (Genova); Andrea Fabbo (Modena); Sara Fascendini (Bergamo); Chiara Forlani (Mantova); Marino Formilan (Venezia); Carmine Fuschillo (Napoli); Michele Gennuso (Cremona); Carmela Gerace (Roma); Fabio Giacalone (Palermo); Barbagallo Giuseppe (Enna); Fabio Guerini (Brescia); Massimo Guido (Roma); Simona Linarello (Bologna); Fabio Lorico (Vicenza); Lucio Luchetti (Piacenza); Maurizio Luchetti (Perugia); Livia Ludovico (Parma); Mariacristina Lupinetti (Pescara); Savina Luvié (Piacenza); Michela Marcon (Vicenza); Donatella Mariani (Monza e Brianza); Giovanna Masone Iacobucci (Roma); Lucia Meligrana (Vicenza); Paola Melzi (Lecco); Vanda Menon (Modena); Giuliana Micale (Modena); Mauro G. Minervini (Bari); Roberto Monastero (Palermo); Enrico Mossello (Firenze); Francesco Nuccetelli (Chieti); Valentina Nucera (Parma); Anna Vittoria Marta Orsini (Napoli); Cristina Paci (Ascoli Piceno); Cristina Pagni (Pisa); Tommaso Piccoli (Palermo); Alessio Pietrella (Roma); Alberto Pilotto (Genova); Camilla Prete (Genova); Valeria Putzu (Cagliari); Michele Ragno (Ascoli Piceno); Monica Ricci (Roma); Roberto Rissotto (Genova); Alessandro Romorini (Milano); Mara Rosso (Cuneo); Luca Rozzini (Brescia); Maria Antonietta Rutigliani (Bari); Antonella Santillo (Napoli); Francesco Scoppa (Palermo); Piero Secreto (Torino); Barbara Senesi (Genova); Carlo Serrati (Genova); Andrea Spanò (Modena); Carla Stangalino (Milano); Antonio Tetto (Lecco); Alessandro Tiezzi (Arezzo); Gloria Tognoni (Pisa); Mirco Vanelli Coralli (Bologna); Concetto Vecchio (Messina); Daniela Viale (Cagliari); Giulia Vinceti (Modena); Marco Vista (Lucca); Elisa Zanacchi (Cremona); Patrizia Zannella (Torino).

Author contributions

AB, NF, AP, ES, MT and SM planned the study and provided insights into analysis. FL and MN analysed the data and wrote the paper. All the authors critically reviewed the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The sponsor was in no way involved in selecting the participants, reviewing the literature, analysing the data collected, drafting or reviewing the paper, or in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. All the views expressed here are exclusively those of the authors. FL and MN declare that they have no conflict of interest to disclose. AB, MT, NF declare that they have no conflict of interest to disclose related to the paper. ES is member of the Eli Lilly and MSD International Scientific Board. SM declares grant from Takeda and Merck.

Statement of human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study formal consent is not required.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Federica Limongi
    • 1
  • Marianna Noale
    • 1
    Email author
  • Angelo Bianchetti
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Nicola Ferrara
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Alessandro Padovani
    • 6
  • Elio Scarpini
    • 7
    • 8
  • Marco Trabucchi
    • 3
    • 4
    • 9
  • Stefania Maggi
    • 1
  • for the MCI Working Group
  1. 1.CNR, Neuroscience Institute, Aging BranchPaduaItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Medicina e RiabilitazioneIstituto Clinico S.Anna—Gruppo San DonatoBresciaItaly
  3. 3.Società Italiana di Geriatria e Gerontologia (SIGG)FlorenceItaly
  4. 4.Associazione Italiana di Psicogeriatria (AIP)BresciaItaly
  5. 5.Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche TraslazionaliUniversità degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”NaplesItaly
  6. 6.Neurology Unit, Dipartimento Scienze Cliniche e SperimentaliUniversità degli Studi di BresciaBresciaItaly
  7. 7.Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore PoliclinicoMilanItaly
  8. 8.Università di Milano, Centro Dino FerrariMilanItaly
  9. 9.University of “Tor Vergata”RomeItaly

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