Advertisement

Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 49–57 | Cite as

Association between skeletal muscle mass and cardiorespiratory fitness in community-dwelling elderly men

  • Seung-Hyun Boo
  • Min Cheol Joo
  • Jeong Mi Lee
  • Seung Chan Kim
  • Young Mi Yu
  • Min-Su KimEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Background

Sarcopenia reduces physical ability and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), leading to poor quality of life.

Aim

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between skeletal muscle mass and CRF in elderly men.

Methods

We assessed 102 community-dwelling men over 60 years old. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was calculated as ASM divided by the square of height. Subjects with an SMI less than 7.0 kg/m2 were included in the sarcopenic group, as recommended by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. To investigate CRF parameters, a cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed using the Bruce protocol. CRF parameters were subdivided into aerobic capacity, cardiovascular response, and ventilatory response.

Results

Of the 102 subjects, 15 (14.7%) were included in the sarcopenic group. There were significant correlations between SMI and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) (r = 0.597, p < 0.001), and between SMI and VO2peak/weight (r = 0.268, p = 0.024). Moreover, there were positive correlations between SMI and first ventilatory threshold (VT1) (r = 0.352, p = 0.008) and between SMI and VT1/weight (r = 0.189, p = 0.039). Additionally, peak oxygen pulse (O2pulsepeak) was significantly correlated with SMI (r = 0.558, p < 0.001). VO2peak, VO2peak/weight and O2pulsepeak showed significant differences between the sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic groups (p < 0.05, all). In multiple linear regression analyses, the factor related to VO2peak was SMI (β = 0.473, p < 0.001) and that related to O2pulsepeak was also SMI (β = 0.442, p < 0.001).

Discussion and conclusions

This study demonstrated that skeletal muscle mass might be closely associated with CRF. Therefore, sarcopenia should be appropriately managed to improve an individual’s CRF.

Keywords

Cardiorespiratory fitness Oxygen consumption Sarcopenia Stroke volume Skeletal muscle 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Rosenberg IH (1989) Summary comments. Am J Clin Nutr 50:1231–1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM et al (2010) Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age Ageing 39:412–423.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afq034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kim YS, Lee Y, Chung YS et al (2012) Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in the Korean population based on the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys. J Gerontol Ser A Biol Sci Med Sci 67:1107–1113.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/gls071 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yamada M, Nishiguchi S, Fukutani N et al (2013) Prevalence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling Japanese older adults. J Am Med Dir Assoc 14:911–915.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2013.08.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim SH, Kim TH, Hwang HJ (2013) The relationship of physical activity (PA) and walking with sarcopenia in Korean males aged 60 years and older using the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-2, 3), 2008–2009. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 56:472–477.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2012.12.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alexandre Tda S, Duarte YA, Santos JL et al (2014) Sarcopenia according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) versus dynapenia as a risk factor for mortality in the elderly. J Nutr Health Aging 18:751–756.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-014-0450-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sousa AS, Guerra RS, Fonseca I et al (2016) Financial impact of sarcopenia on hospitalization costs. Eur J Clin Nutr 70:1046–1051.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2016.73 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wendell CR, Gunstad J, Waldstein SR et al (2014) Cardiorespiratory fitness and accelerated cognitive decline with aging. J Gerontol Ser A Biol Sci Med Sci 69:455–462.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glt144 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bouaziz W, Vogel T, Schmitt E et al (2017) Health benefits of aerobic training programs in adults aged 70 and over: a systematic review. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 69:110–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2016.10.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kodama S, Saito K, Tanaka S et al (2009) Cardiorespiratory fitness as a quantitative predictor of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in healthy men and women: a meta-analysis. JAMA 301:2024–2035.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.681 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chien MY, Kuo HK, Wu YT (2010) Sarcopenia, cardiopulmonary fitness, and physical disability in community-dwelling elderly people. Phys Ther 90:1277–1287.  https://doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20090322 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    de Oliveira RJ, Bottaro M, Motta AM et al (2009) Association between sarcopenia-related phenotypes and aerobic capacity indexes of older women. J Sports Sci Med 8:337–343Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sanada K, Kuchiki T, Miyachi M et al (2007) Effects of age on ventilatory threshold and peak oxygen uptake normalised for regional skeletal muscle mass in Japanese men and women aged 20–80 years. Eur J Appl Physiol 99:475–483.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-006-0375-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hunt BE, Davy KP, Jones PP et al (1998) Role of central circulatory factors in the fat-free mass-maximal aerobic capacity relation across age. Am J Physiol 275:H1178–H1182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sugie M, Harada K, Takahashi T et al. (2017) Relationship between skeletal muscle mass and cardiac function during exercise in community-dwelling older adults. ESC Heart Fail 4:409–416.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12158 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kim TN, Park MS, Kim YJ et al (2014) Association of low muscle mass and combined low muscle mass and visceral obesity with low cardiorespiratory fitness. PLoS One 9:e100118.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Forman DE, Myers J, Lavie CJ et al (2010) Cardiopulmonary exercise testing: relevant but underused. Postgrad Med 122:68–86.  https://doi.org/10.3810/pgm.2010.11.2225 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dey DK, Bosaeus I, Lissner L et al (2009) Changes in body composition and its relation to muscle strength in 75-year-old men and women: a 5-year prospective follow-up study of the NORA cohort in Goteborg, Sweden. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County. California) 25:613–619.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2008.11.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maggio M, Lauretani F, Ceda GP (2013) Sex hormones and sarcopenia in older persons. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 16:3–13.  https://doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0b013e32835b6044 Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kaiser MJ, Bauer JM, Ramsch C et al (2009) Validation of the Mini Nutritional Assessment short-form (MNA-SF): a practical tool for identification of nutritional status. J Nutr Health Aging 13:782–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shikany JM, Jacobs DR Jr, Lewis CE et al (2013) Associations between food groups, dietary patterns, and cardiorespiratory fitness in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. Am J Clin Nutr 98:1402–1409.  https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.058826 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Harada H, Kai H, Niiyama H et al (2017) Effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation for prevention and treatment of sarcopenia in patients with cardiovascular disease—a retrospective cross-sectional analysis. J Nutr Health Aging 21:449–456.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-016-0743-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chen LK, Liu LK, Woo J et al (2014) Sarcopenia in Asia: consensus report of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. J Am Med Dir Assoc 15:95–101.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2013.11.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bruce RA, Blackmon JR, Jones JW et al (1963) Exercising testing in adult normal subjects and cardiac patients. Pediatrics 32:742–756Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Albouaini K, Egred M, Alahmar A et al (2007) Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and its application. Heart 93:1285–1292.  https://doi.org/10.1136/hrt.2007.121558 Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Han P, Kang L, Guo Q et al (2016) Prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia in suburb-dwelling older Chinese using the asian working group for sarcopenia definition. J Gerontol Ser A Biol Sci Med Sci 71:529–535.  https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glv108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Takahashi T, Sugie M, Nara M et al (2017) Femoral muscle mass relates to physical frailty components in community-dwelling older people. Geriatr Gerontol Int 17:1636–1641.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ggi.12945 Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kim J, Lee Y, Kye S, Chung YS et al (2015) Association between healthy diet and exercise and greater muscle mass in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 63:886–892.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.13386 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rosen MJ, Sorkin JD, Goldberg AP et al (1998) Predictors of age-associated decline in maximal aerobic capacity: a comparison of four statistical models. J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, Md: 1985) 84:2163–2170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Abe T, Kearns CF, Fukunaga T (2003) Sex differences in whole body skeletal muscle mass measured by magnetic resonance imaging and its distribution in young Japanese adults. Br J Sports Med 37:436–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Magri D, Agostoni P, Corra U et al (2015) Deceptive meaning of oxygen uptake measured at the anaerobic threshold in patients with systolic heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Eur J Prev Cardiol 22:1046–1055.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487314551546 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Laukkanen JA, Kurl S, Salonen JT et al (2006) Peak oxygen pulse during exercise as a predictor for coronary heart disease and all cause death. Heart 92:1219–1224.  https://doi.org/10.1136/hrt.2005.077487 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Olivetti G, Melissari M, Capasso JM et al (1991) Cardiomyopathy of the aging human heart. Myocyte loss and reactive cellular hypertrophy. Circ Res 68:1560–1568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lin J, Lopez EF, Jin Y et al (2008) Age-related cardiac muscle sarcopenia: combining experimental and mathematical modeling to identify mechanisms. Exp Gerontol 43:296–306.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2007.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Harrington D, Anker SD, Chua TP et al (1997) Skeletal muscle function and its relation to exercise tolerance in chronic heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol 30:1758–1764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Buford TW, Anton SD, Judge AR et al (2010) Models of accelerated sarcopenia: critical pieces for solving the puzzle of age-related muscle atrophy. Ageing Res Rev 9:369–383.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2010.04.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    De Lorenzo A, da Silva CL, Souza FCC et al (2017) Clinical, scintigraphic, and angiographic predictors of oxygen pulse abnormality in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Clin Cardiol 40:914–918.  https://doi.org/10.1002/clc.22747 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fleg JL, Lakatta EG (1988) Role of muscle loss in the age-associated reduction in VO2max. J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, Md: 1985) 65:1147–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bowen TS, Schuler G, Adams V (2015) Skeletal muscle wasting in cachexia and sarcopenia: molecular pathophysiology and impact of exercise training. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 6:197–207.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mitch WE, Goldberg AL (1996) Mechanisms of muscle wasting. The role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. N Engl J Med 335:1897–1905.  https://doi.org/10.1056/nejm199612193352507 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gumucio JP, Mendias CL (2013) Atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and sarcopenia. Endocrine 43:12–21.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-012-9751-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Proctor DN, Joyner MJ (1997) Skeletal muscle mass and the reduction of VO2max in trained older subjects. J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, Md: 1985) 82:1411–1415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Knechtle B, Rust CA, Knechtle P et al (2012) Does muscle mass affect running times in male long-distance master runners? Asian J Sports Med 3:247–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Barbat-Artigas S, Dupontgand S et al (2011) Relationship between dynapenia and cardiorespiratory functions in healthy postmenopausal women: novel clinical criteria. Menopause (New York, NY) 18:400–405.  https://doi.org/10.1097/gme.0b013e3181f7a596 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sergi G, De Rui M, Stubbs B et al (2017) Measurement of lean body mass using bioelectrical impedance analysis: a consideration of the pros and cons. Aging Clin Exp Res 29:591–597.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-016-0622-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Janssen I, Heymsfield SB, Baumgartner RN et al (2000) Estimation of skeletal muscle mass by bioelectrical impedance analysis. J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, Md: 1985) 89:465–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation MedicineWonkwang University School of MedicineIksanRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Preventive MedicineWonkwang University School of MedicineIksanRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of StatisticsPukyong National UniversityBusanRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Department of Rehabilitation MedicineWonkwang University Hospital at 895Iksan-siRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations