Gender differences in home-based cardiac rehabilitation of post-percutaneous coronary intervention patients
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Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a structured program for the prevention of secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. This study aimed to investigate whether there are gender differences after 9 months of home-based cardiac rehabilitation program in post-percutaneous coronary intervention patients. A total of 114 (58.29 ± 10.33 years) men and 30 (60.90 ± 9.32 years) women were enrolled in the CR program. The program included three visits: initial, 4th month (follow-up), and 9th month (final) visits at a CR center. The CR program included exercise and nutrition counseling. In nutrition counseling, a professional nutritionist educated the patients on how to organize the menu, incorporating an optimal caloric, low-salt, and low-cholesterol diet. Exercise was performed 30 min per session for more than 3 days per week with a target heart rate within 40–75% of the peak heart rate-resting heart rate (VO2 reserve; VO2R) during intense exercise, which was based on ECG treadmill test. After 9 months, there was no significant difference in terms of dropout rate between men and women (p < 0.05). No significant changes were found in the anthropometric and lipid profiles in women, whereas the HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly increased to 6.8% (p = 0.005) in men. The findings of our study showed that there was no difference in the CR participation rate between men and women. Moreover, there was an increase in HDL-C levels and an improvement in cardiorespiratory endurance, strength, and agility in men, whereas no significant difference in most risk factors and fitness variables was found in women. Thus, the 9-month home-based CR program was more effective for fitness in men, but only the HDL-C showed positive improvement among the cardiovascular risk factors. In women, 6-min walk and timed up and go were effective exercises.
KeywordsPercutaneous coronary intervention Cardiac rehabilitation Gender
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Asan Medical Center (2015-0594) and conducted in accordance with the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki.
Informed consent was provided by all participants.
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