Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 30, Issue 6, pp 563–571 | Cite as

The associations between dietary patterns and bone health, according to the TGF-β1 T869→C polymorphism, in postmenopausal Iranian women

  • Sajjad Moradi
  • Leila Khorrami-nezhad
  • Sima Ali-akbar
  • Fatemeh Zare
  • Tanaz Alipour
  • Azadeh Dehghani Kari Bozorg
  • Mir Saeed Yekaninejad
  • Zhila Maghbooli
  • Khadijeh Mirzaei
Original Article



Recent studies have shown that dietary variants and genetic variants play a decisive role in the risk of developing osteoporosis. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine associations between dietary pattern and bone health, according to the TGF-β1 T869→C polymorphism, in postmenopausal Iranian women.

Materials and methods

In this study, 264 postmenopausal women aged from 46 to 78 years were examined. Body composition was measured by a body composition analyzer and physical activity by the short-form physical activity questionnaire. Bone mineral density was measured by the DEXA method. Dietary patterns were determined using factor analysis on 27 foods groups, employing a valid, reliable 147-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The dietary patterns were analyzed by the factor analysis method. Blood samples were taken for measuring blood parameters. DNA samples from participants were genotyped using the RFLP-PCR method.


Three dietary patterns were identified, namely: mediterranean diet, traditional diet, and unhealthy diet—one of which was associated with bone health. Postmenopausal women following a Mediterranean diet had lower weight and central obesity (0.05 > P). Higher adherence to a Mediterranean pattern was positively associated with Z-score L2_L4 lumbar spine (0.05 > P). TGF-β1 T869→C genotypes, after adjustment, were not directly correlated with bone mineral density and body composition (0.05 < P). Moreover, these findings demonstrated that in participants adhering to a Traditional dietary pattern, the C allele carrier group (TC and CC genotypes) had a lower L2_L4 Z-score (P = 0.05).


It seems that the mediterranean diet can be a beneficial dietary pattern in the prevention of osteoporosis and obesity in postmenopausal women. Furthermore (probably in the C allele carrier group), lower vitamin D intake, coupled with adherence to a traditional dietary pattern, reduces the deposition of TGF-beta and increases the risk of lumbar spine osteoporosis.


Gene–diet interaction Dietary pattern TGF-β1 T869→C polymorphism Osteoporosis 



The authors thank the directors of the Osteoporosis Research Center (ORC), the Endocrine Diseases and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, for allowing them to conduct the comparative cross-sectional study for the purpose of evaluating BMD and major dietary pattern associations. This study was supported by an ORC grant and research grants from Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Grant IDs: 94-02-161-29547 and 94-02-161-29564).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There are no competing financial interests in relation to the current study.

Statement of human and animal rights

The study was approved by the local ethics committee of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Ethical number: IR.TUMS.REC.1394.1805).

Informed consent

All participants were provided with a written informed consent before taking part in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sajjad Moradi
    • 1
  • Leila Khorrami-nezhad
    • 1
  • Sima Ali-akbar
    • 2
  • Fatemeh Zare
    • 2
  • Tanaz Alipour
    • 1
  • Azadeh Dehghani Kari Bozorg
    • 1
  • Mir Saeed Yekaninejad
    • 3
  • Zhila Maghbooli
    • 2
  • Khadijeh Mirzaei
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and DieteticsTehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS)TehranIran
  2. 2.Osteoporosis Research Center, Endocrine Diseases and Metabolism Research InstituteTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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