Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 29, Issue 6, pp 1191–1199 | Cite as

Evaluation of the turning characteristics according to the severity of Parkinson disease during the timed up and go test

  • Minji Son
  • Changhong YoumEmail author
  • Sangmyung Cheon
  • Jaewoo Kim
  • Meounggon Lee
  • Youkyung Kim
  • Jinhee Kim
  • Hyeryun Sung
Original Article



Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) experience problems such as falls and freezing of gait during walking and turning in daily activities. However, few studies have examined the relationship between simultaneous turning tasks and the severity of PD.


To investigate turning characteristics in patients with PD using three-dimensional (3D) analysis during the timed up and go (TUG) test.


Thirty individuals performed the TUG test under 3D motion analysis: 10 patients with Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stages 2.5 and 3.0 PD (group I), 10 patients with H&Y stage 2.0 PD (group II), and 10 healthy older adult controls. Spatiotemporal and kinematic variables were analyzed during the TUG test with a Vicon 3-D motion analysis system.


The walking speed, step length, step length asymmetry index, range of motion of the hip, knee, and shoulder joints, and foot clearance height significantly differed between patients with PD and the controls. The step length and foot clearance height were significantly different between groups I and II.


The step length and foot clearance are different between the severity levels of PD, and the TUG test may be useful for identifying turning characteristics in patients with PD.


Patients with PD exhibited significant differences in all variables of interest compared to the controls. The step length and foot clearance height as well as the TUG test during the turning phase may be helpful for measuring turning in patients with different severity levels of PD.


Parkinson disease Timed up and go test Turning Kinematics Spatiotemporal variables 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


This study was supported by the Dong-A University research fund.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biomechanics Laboratory, College of Health SciencesDong-A UniversityBusanRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Health Care and Science, College of Health SciencesDong-A UniversityBusanRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Medical CenterDong-A UniversityBusanRepublic of Korea

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