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Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 29, Supplement 1, pp 7–13 | Cite as

Nodular thyroid disease in the elderly: novel molecular approaches for the diagnosis of malignancy

  • Salvatore Sorrenti
  • Enke Baldini
  • Francesco Tartaglia
  • Antonio Catania
  • Stefano Arcieri
  • Daniele Pironi
  • Pier Giorgio Calò
  • Angelo Filippini
  • Salvatore Ulisse
Review

Abstract

Epithelial thyroid cancers (TC) comprise two differentiated histotypes (DTC), the papillary (PTC) and the follicular (FTC) thyroid carcinomas which, following dedifferentiation, are assumed to give rise to the poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas and the rare, but highly aggressive and invariably fatal, anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Although thyroid cancer mortality has not been changed, its annual incidence has increased over the last two decades, mainly because of the improved ability to diagnose malignant transformation in small non-palpable thyroid nodules. Despite DTC patients have a favorable prognosis, aggressive disease is more frequently observed in the elderly showing a higher disease-specific mortality. Of relevance is the high prevalence of nodular thyroid disease in aged patients being higher than 90%, in women older than 60 year, and 60% in men older than 80 year. This implies a careful evaluation of thyroid nodules in this group of patients in order to exclude malignancy. In fact, despite the tremendous progress in the comprehension of the underlying molecular mechanisms deregulated in DTC progression, several aspects of their clinical management remain to be solved and novel diagnostic strategies are sorely needed. Here, we will attempt to review new molecular approaches, which are currently being exploited in order to ameliorate the diagnosis of thyroid nodules.

Keywords

Thyroid cancer Thyroid nodule Molecular diagnosis Aging 

Abbreviations

TC

Thyroid carcinoma

DTC

Differentiated thyroid carcinoma

PTC

Papillary thyroid carcinoma

FTC

Follicular thyroid carcinoma

PDTC

Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma

ATC

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

FNAC

Fine needle aspiration cytology

AUS/FLUS

Atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance

FN/SFN

Follicular neoplasm/suspicious for follicular neoplasm

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

EMT

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study formal consent is not required.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Salvatore Sorrenti
    • 1
  • Enke Baldini
    • 1
  • Francesco Tartaglia
    • 1
  • Antonio Catania
    • 1
  • Stefano Arcieri
    • 1
  • Daniele Pironi
    • 1
  • Pier Giorgio Calò
    • 2
  • Angelo Filippini
    • 1
  • Salvatore Ulisse
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Surgical Sciences“Sapienza” University of RomeRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Surgical SciencesUniversity of CagliariCagliariItaly

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