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Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 29, Issue 5, pp 821–831 | Cite as

Neuroinflammation, immune system and Alzheimer disease: searching for the missing link

  • F. GuerrieroEmail author
  • C. Sgarlata
  • M. Francis
  • N. Maurizi
  • A. Faragli
  • S. Perna
  • M. Rondanelli
  • M. Rollone
  • G. Ricevuti
Review

Abstract

Due to an increasingly aging population, Alzheimer disease (AD) represents a crucial issue for the healthcare system because of its widespread prevalence and the burden of its care needs. Several hypotheses on AD pathogenesis have been proposed and current therapeutical strategies have shown limited effectiveness. In the last decade, more evidence has supported a role for neuroinflammation and immune system dysregulation in AD. It remains unclear whether astrocytes, microglia and immune cells influence disease onset, progression or both. Amyloid-β peptides that aggregate extracellularly in the typical neuritic plaques generate a constant inflammatory environment. This causes a prolonged activation of microglial and astroglial cells that potentiate neuronal damage and provoke the alteration of the blood brain barrier (BBB), damaging the permeability of blood vessels. Recent data support the role of the BBB as a link between neuroinflammation, the immune system and AD. Hence, a thorough investigation of the neuroinflammatory and immune system pathways that impact neurodegeneration and novel exciting findings such as microglia-derived microvesicles, inflammasomes and signalosomes will ultimately enhance our understanding of the pathological process. Eventually, we should proceed with caution in defining a causal or consequential role of neuroinflammation in AD, but rather focus on identifying its exact pathological contribution.

Keywords

Alzheimer disease Neuroinflammation Blood brain barrier Inflammasome Signalosome Derived-microglia microvesicles 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all Authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Guerriero
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • C. Sgarlata
    • 1
  • M. Francis
    • 1
  • N. Maurizi
    • 1
  • A. Faragli
    • 1
  • S. Perna
    • 3
  • M. Rondanelli
    • 3
  • M. Rollone
    • 2
  • G. Ricevuti
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Therapy, Section of GeriatricsUniversity of PaviaPaviaItaly
  2. 2.Azienda di Servizi alla PersonaIstituto di Cura Santa Margherita of PaviaPaviaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Section of Human Nutrition, Endocrinology and Nutrition UnitUniversity of PaviaPaviaItaly

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