Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 265–272 | Cite as

Frailty and sarcopenia in Bogotá: results from the SABE Bogotá Study

  • Rafael Samper-TernentEmail author
  • Carlos Reyes-Ortiz
  • Kenneth J. Ottenbacher
  • Carlos A. Cano
Original Article



Latin American countries like Colombia are experiencing a unique aging process due to a mixed epidemiological regime of communicable and non-communicable diseases.


To estimate the prevalence of frailty and sarcopenia among older adults in Colombia and identify variables associated with these conditions.


Data come from the “Salud Bienestar y Envejecimiento” (SABE) Bogotá Study, a cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 in Bogotá, Colombia. Sociodemographic, health, cognitive and anthropometric measures were collected from 2000 community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and older. Frailty variable was created using the Fried phenotype and sarcopenia following the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People algorithm. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with frailty and sarcopenia.


A total of 135 older adults are frail (9.4 %), while 166 have sarcopenia (11.5 %). Older age and female gender have a significant association with both conditions (Frailty: Age OR 1.05, 95 % CI 1.03–1.06, Gender OR 1.44, 95 % CI 1.12–1.84; Sarcopenia: Age 1.04, 95 % CI 1.02–1.07, Gender OR 1.51, 95 % CI 1.05–2.17). Depression was also significantly associated with frailty (OR 1.17, 95 % CI 1.12–1.22), while smoking was significantly associated with sarcopenia (OR 2.38, 95 % CI 1.29–4.37). Finally, higher function, measured by independence in IADL (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living) was significantly associated with less frailty (OR 0.74, 95 % CI 0.64–0.86). Education, higher number of comorbidities, better MMSE score, activities of daily living disability and alcohol consumption were not significantly associated with frailty or sarcopenia.


Frailty, sarcopenia and multimorbidity are overlapping, yet distinct conditions in this sample. There are potentially reversible factors that are associated with frailty and sarcopenia in this sample. Future studies need to analyze the best way to prevent these conditions, and examine individuals that have frailty, sarcopenia and comorbidities to design interventions to improve their quality of life.


Frailty Sarcopenia Comorbidity Bogotá Colombia 



We would like to thank Miguel Borda MD, and Antonio Arciniegas MD, for their feedback and help with editorial aspects of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards


This study was supported by a grant from the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation—Colciencias in Colombia, Code 120354531692 and the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflict of interest for the current manuscript.

Statement of human and animal rights

All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana institutional review board and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafael Samper-Ternent
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Carlos Reyes-Ortiz
    • 4
  • Kenneth J. Ottenbacher
    • 3
    • 5
  • Carlos A. Cano
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de EnvejecimientoPontificia Universidad JaverianaBogotáColombia
  2. 2.Geriatrics UnitHospital Universitario San IgnacioBogotáColombia
  3. 3.Division of Rehabilitation Sciences University of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  4. 4.Geriatric and Palliative MedicineUniversity of Texas Health Science Center at HoustonHoustonUSA
  5. 5.Center for Recovery, Physical Activity and NutritionUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA

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