Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 421–426 | Cite as

One-year repeated cycles of cognitive training (CT) for Alzheimer’s disease

  • Susanna Bergamaschi
  • Giorgio Arcara
  • Attilio Calza
  • Daniele Villani
  • Vasiliki Orgeta
  • Sara Mondini
Original Article



Recent research suggests that a combination of both pharmacological and psychosocial treatments targeting cognitive functions improves cognition in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a 1-year cognitive training (CT) by comparing the cognitive performance of 16 patients with AD treated with CT and cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) (experimental group) with the performance of 16 patients treated with a non-specific cognitive treatment and ChEIs (control group).


This study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial. The patients in the experimental group received pharmacological treatment and repeated cycles of CT for 1 year, whereas the control group received pharmacological treatment and repeated cycles of non-specific cognitive exercises. The patients in the two groups were administered a variety of neuropsychological tests measuring several cognitive functions (i.e. memory, language, reasoning, executive function, working memory and apraxia), activities of daily living, and depression.


After 1 year of training, the experimental group scored significantly higher on the Mini Mental State Examination, the Milan Overall Dementia Assessment battery and in other five neuropsychological tests, compared to the control group.


Present results suggest that repeated cycles of CT in patients with AD treated with ChEIs are associated with benefits in several areas of cognitive function.


Dementia Cognitive impairment Neuropsychological assessment Non-pharmacological interventions 


Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susanna Bergamaschi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Giorgio Arcara
    • 4
  • Attilio Calza
    • 2
  • Daniele Villani
    • 2
  • Vasiliki Orgeta
    • 3
  • Sara Mondini
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of General PsychologyUniversity of PaduaPaduaItaly
  2. 2.Casa di Cura Figlie di San CamilloCremonaItaly
  3. 3.UCL, Mental Health Sciences UnitLondonUK
  4. 4.I.R.C.C.S. Fondazione Ospedale San CamilloVeniceItaly

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