Associations of vitamin D with novel and traditional anthropometric indices according to age and sex: a cross-sectional study in central southern China
- 24 Downloads
Vitamin D insufficiency and obesity are recognized as worldwide concerns and have been linked with each other. New anthropometric indices reflect visceral obesity better than traditional anthropometric indices. Our aim was to identify the specific correlations of novel and traditional anthropometric indices with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations by sex and age.
Cross-sectional data on sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, clinical characteristics and biochemical measurements were collected for 12,617 Chinese adults. Four traditional anthropometric indices, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and two novel anthropometric indices, body roundness index (BRI) and body shape index (ABSI), were calculated.
In both sexes, the mean values of BMI, WC, WHtR and BRI tended to increase with 25(OH)D insufficiency, regardless of adjustment (all P < 0.05). Males with insufficient 25(OH)D had increased odds of obesity (assessed by BMI, WC, WHtR, BRI and ABSI) compared to the odds of males with sufficient 25(OH)D. Females with insufficient 25(OH)D had a higher chance of general obesity (assessed by BMI). Low 25(OH)D status was associated with indicators of obesity only in participants aged 45–64 years in both sexes.
A inverse association between obesity and lower vitamin D levels was found. Moreover, in addition to BMI, novel indicators of visceral adiposity, such as BRI and ABSI, were associated with lower 25(OH)D serum concentrations in males. The effects of optimizing vitamin D levels in obese Chinese adults need further examination, particularly in middle-aged males.
Level of evidence
Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.
KeywordsSerum 25(OH)D Obesity Anthropometric indices Sex Age
The authors appreciate the valuable assistance of all subjects. We would also like to thank Chang Liu for his help with data programming.
This study was supported by the New Xiangya Talent Project of the Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University (JY201515) and the Research on Educational and Teaching Reform of Central South University (2019jy185).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all subjects included in the study.
- 3.Akter S, Kuwahara K, Matsushita Y, Nakagawa T, Konishi M, Honda T, Yamamoto S, Hayashi T, Noda M, Mizoue T (2019) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and risk of type 2 diabetes among japanese adults: the Hitachi Health Study. Clin Nutr. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2019.05.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 8.Mathieu SV, Fischer K, Dawson-Hughes B, Freystaetter G, Beuschlein F, Schietzel S, Egli A, Bischoff-Ferrari HA (2018) Association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D status and components of body composition and glucose metabolism in older men and women. Nutrients. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121826 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 10.Lundstrom P, Caidahl K, Eriksson MJ, Fritz T, Krook A, Zierath JR, Rickenlund A (2019) Changes in vitamin D status in overweight middle-aged adults with or without impaired glucose metabolism in two consecutive nordic summers. J Nutr Metab 2019:1840374. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1840374 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 14.Wang YQ, Wang CF, Zhu L, Yuan H, Wu LX, Chen ZH (2017) Ideal cardiovascular health and the subclinical impairments of cardiovascular diseases: a cross-sectional study in Central South China. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 17:269. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12872-017-0697-9 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 15.Lee SY, Park HS, Kim DJ, Han JH, Kim SM, Cho GJ, Kim DY, Kwon HS, Kim SR, Lee CB, Oh SJ, Park CY, Yoo HJ (2007) Appropriate waist circumference cutoff points for central obesity in Korean adults. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 75:72–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2006.04.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 17.Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ (1998) Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a who consultation. Diabet Med 15:539–553. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9136(199807)15:7%3c539:AID-DIA668%3e3.0.CO;2-S CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.Browning LM, Hsieh SD, Ashwell M (2010) A systematic review of waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for the prediction of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: 0.5 could be a suitable global boundary value. Nutr Res Rev 23:247–269. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954422410000144 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 19.Thomas DM, Bredlau C, Bosy-Westphal A, Mueller M, Shen W, Gallagher D, Maeda Y, McDougall A, Peterson CM, Ravussin E, Heymsfield SB (2013) Relationships between body roundness with body fat and visceral adipose tissue emerging from a new geometrical model. Obesity (Silver Spring) 21:2264–2271. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20408 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Yang W, Xiao J, Yang Z, Ji L, Jia W, Weng J, Lu J, Shan Z, Liu J, Tian H, Ji Q, Zhu D, Ge J, Lin L, Chen L, Guo X, Zhao Z, Li Q, Zhou Z, Shan G, He J, China National D, Metabolic Disorders Study I (2012) Serum lipids and lipoproteins in Chinese men and women. Circulation 125:2212–2221. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.065904 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 23.Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright JT Jr, Roccella EJ, National Heart L, Blood Institute Joint National Committee on Prevention DE, Treatment of High Blood P, National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating C (2003) The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure: the Jnc 7 report. JAMA 289:2560–2572. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.289.19.2560 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 29.Collaborators GBDRF (2018) Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017. Lancet 392:1923–1994. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32225-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Snijder MB, van Dam RM, Visser M, Deeg DJ, Dekker JM, Bouter LM, Seidell JC, Lips P (2005) Adiposity in relation to vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone levels: a population-based study in older men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90:4119–4123. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2005-0216 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 35.Cheng S, Massaro JM, Fox CS, Larson MG, Keyes MJ, McCabe EL, Robins SJ, O’Donnell CJ, Hoffmann U, Jacques PF, Booth SL, Vasan RS, Wolf M, Wang TJ (2010) Adiposity, cardiometabolic risk, and vitamin D status: the Framingham Heart Study. Diabetes 59:242–248. https://doi.org/10.2337/db09-1011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 38.Piccolo BD, Hall LM, Stephensen CB, Gertz ER, Van Loan MD (2019) Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in overweight and obese adults are explained by sun exposure, skin reflectance, and body composition. Curr Dev Nutr 3:nzz065. https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzz065 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 39.De Pergola G, Martino T, Zupo R, Caccavo D, Pecorella C, Paradiso S, Silvestris F, Triggiani V (2019) 25 Hydroxyvitamin D levels are negatively and independently associated with fat mass in a cohort of healthy overweight and obese subjects. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. https://doi.org/10.2174/1871530319666190122094039 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 42.Forsythe LK, Livingstone MB, Barnes MS, Horigan G, McSorley EM, Bonham MP, Magee PJ, Hill TR, Lucey AJ, Cashman KD, Kiely M, Strain JJ, Wallace JM (2012) Effect of adiposity on vitamin D status and the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to supplementation in healthy young and older Irish adults. Br J Nutr 107:126–134. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511002662 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 43.Martini LA, Wood RJ (2006) Vitamin D status and the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Rev 64:479–486. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2006.tb00180.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar