Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ)

  • Cristina Senín-Calderón
  • José L. Santos-Morocho
  • Juan F. Rodríguez-TestalEmail author
Original Article



The main objective of this study was to analyse the factor structure and psychometric properties of a Spanish validation of the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ) in a community sample of adolescents.


A total of 4283 people (55.9% girls, aged 12–18) participated.


Confirmatory factor analysis corroborated four first-order factors related to a second-order factor including the total BIAQ score, with excellent fit and invariance across sex. The total internal consistency of the questionnaire was adequate, although two factors showed low reliability. Strong relationships were found with scales evaluating preoccupation with weight and dysmorphic concerns, and moderate correlations with dissatisfaction and investment in appearance. It was found that 24.06% of adolescents with body image disturbance could be at risk of developing a body image disorder.


The results of this study support the use of the Spanish translation of the BIAQ for assessing behavioural characteristic of body image disturbance.

Level of evidence

V, cross-sectional descriptive study.


Body image disturbance Adolescents Validity Body image avoidance BIAQ Psychometric properties 



This study was partly supported by the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Spain) [Grant number: PSI2015-68659-P].

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The Andalusia (Spain) Bioethics Committee approved the study. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

An information sheet with the objectives of the study and an informed consent form were provided for parents or guardians to give their authorization for their children to participate in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CádizCádizSpain
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CuencaCuencaEcuador
  3. 3.Personality, Evaluation and Psychological Treatment DepartmentUniversity of SevilleSevilleSpain

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