Correlations of neck circumference with body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors in Arab women
- 18 Downloads
Neck circumference (NC) is a relatively unused index of upper body adiposity. The present study aims to analyze the associations of NC with anthropometric measures of obesity, as well as cardiovascular and metabolic risks in Arab women.
This cross-sectional study included 623 women (aged 18–70 years) recruited from different primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. NC, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and metabolic and serological markers were measured in all participants. Covariance and regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between NC and cardiometabolic risk factors.
The correlation coefficients of NC and WC with the clinical indices were highly significant (p < 0.01). Overall, the NC was positively correlated with all cardiometabolic markers except total cholesterol and LDLc (p < 0.001). Interestingly, NC was associated with cardiometabolic risk factors independent of other anthropometric indices.
NC is significantly and independently associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in Arab women.
Level of evidence
V, cross-sectional descriptive study.
KeywordsNeck circumference Adiposity Metabolic risk Saudis
The authors are grateful to Malak Nawaz Khan Khattak for the statistical analysis.
The study was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research, Chair for Biomarkers of Chronic Diseases, Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11421, Saudi Arabia.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The research protocol and the consent documents were approved by the Ethics Committee of KSU, in Riyadh, KSA (No. 429679/67/4) and the University of Maryland College Park Institutional Review Board (IRB) (No. 411873-4).
All subjects gave their informed consent after we provided a full explanation of the study.
- 4.Fast facts: obesity—a global problem (2016) http://www.fastfacts.com/_files/ff%20obesity%20a%20global%20problem.pdf. Accessed 14 Feb 2016
- 5.Loan MV (1998) Skinfolds, circumferences, and bioimpedance. In: St. Jeor ST (ed) Obesity assessment tools, methods, interpretations. International Thomson Publishing, New York, pp 68–82Google Scholar
- 10.Klein S, Allison DB, Heymsfield SB et al (2007) Waist circumference and cardiometabolic risk: a consensus statement from Shaping America’s Health: Association for Weight Management and Obesity Prevention; NAASO, the Obesity Society; the American Society for Nutrition; and the American Diabetes Association. Obes (Silver Spring) 15:1061–1067. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2007.632 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Onat A, Hergenc G, Yuksel H, Can G, Ayhan E, Kaya Z, Dursunoglu D (2009) Neck circumference as a measure of central obesity: associations with metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome beyond waist circumference. Clin Nutr 28:46–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2008.10.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 17.The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2002) Anthropometry procedures manual. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/nhanes_07_08/manual_an.pdf
- 19.Bonora E, Formentini G, Calcaterra F et al (2002) HOMA-estimated insulin resistance is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic subjects prospective data from the Verona Diabetes Complications Study. Diabetes Care 25:1135–1141. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.25.7.1135 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 21.Alberti KGMM, Eckel RH, Grundy SM et al (2009) Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society and International Association for the Study of Obesity. Circulation 120(16):1640–1645. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192644 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 23.Aswathappa J, Garg S, Kutty K, Shankar V (2014) Utility of neck circumference, a simple and novel measure as anthropometric marker of obesity in adults. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 3(3):1618–1629Google Scholar
- 25.Stabe C, Vasques ACJ, Lima MMO et al (2013) Neck circumference as a simple tool for identifying the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance: results from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 78(6):874–881. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2265.2012.04487.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.Ejtahed HS, Qorbani M, Motlagh ME, Angoorani P, Hasani-Ranjbar S, Ziaodini H et al (2018) Association of anthropometric indices with continuous metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-V study. Eat Weight Disord 23(5):597–604. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-017-0455-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 39.Ataie-Jafari A, Namazi N, Djalalinia S, Chaghamirzayi P, Abdar ME, Zadehe SS et al (2018) Neck circumference and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetol Metab Syndr 10:72. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13098-018-0373-y CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar