Factors associated with body dissatisfaction among the Lebanese population

  • Chadia Haddad
  • Maha Zakhour
  • Marwan Akel
  • Karl Honein
  • Maria Akiki
  • Souheil HallitEmail author
  • Sahar ObeidEmail author
Original Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Personality and Eating and Weight disorders



To evaluate the factors associated with body dissatisfaction among the Lebanese population, including sociodemographic characteristics, self-esteem, stress, anxiety, depression, emotional regulation, emotional eating and the adult attachment style.


This cross-sectional study, conducted between January and May 2018, enrolled 811 adult participants from all districts of Lebanon. The body dissatisfaction subscale of the eating disorder inventory version 2 (EDI-2) was used to measure body disturbance.


The mean age of the participants was 27.59 ± 11.76 years, with 66.5% females. The final model of the regression analysis showed that a higher binge eating score (Beta = 0.202), being married (Beta = 1.233), having a family history of eating disorders (Beta = 1.933), higher BMI (Beta = 0.076), dieting to lose weight (past 30 days) (Beta = 2.345), receiving comments from the family (Beta = 2.234) and pressure from TV/magazines to lose weight (Beta = 1.320), vomiting or taking laxatives to lose weight (past 30 days) (Beta = 1.861), higher depression (Beta = 0.103) and higher perceived stress (Beta = 0.107) were associated with a higher body dissatisfaction score. However, higher self-esteem (Beta = − 0.246), increased physical activity (Beta = − 0.022) and being divorced (Beta = − 4.226) were significantly associated with a lower body dissatisfaction score.


A significant association was found in this current study between the main variables: depression, self-esteem, social anxiety, eating disorders, family and television pressure and body image dissatisfaction.

Level of evidence

Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.


Body dissatisfaction Eating disorder Diet Distress Psychological factors 



This study received no funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychiatric Hospital of the CrossJall-EddibLebanon
  2. 2.Faculty of ScienceLebanese UniversityFanarLebanon
  3. 3.School of PharmacyLebanese International UniversityBeirutLebanon
  4. 4.INSPECT-LB: Institut National de Santé Publique, Epidemiologie Clinique et ToxicologieBeirutLebanon
  5. 5.Faculty of Medicine and Medical SciencesHoly Spirit University of Kaslik (USEK)JouniehLebanon
  6. 6.Faculty of Philosophy and Human SciencesHoly Spirit University (USEK)JouniehLebanon
  7. 7.Faculty of PedagogyLebanese UniversityBeirutLebanon
  8. 8.BiakoutLebanon

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