Advertisement

Stress does not affect ghrelin secretion in obese and normal weight women

  • Gundula R. R. Kiessl
  • Reinhold G. Laessle
Original Article

Abstract

Stress has been supposed to increase appetite. The biological basis of this phenomenon may be a stress-induced alteration of the secretion of GUT peptides such as ghrelin. Stress-induced changes in ghrelin secretion could be a biological basis of overeating and a factor contributing to the development of obesity. Aim of the study was to analyze the effect of acute psychosocial stress on ghrelin secretion in obese and normal weight women. We compared pre- and postprandial plasma ghrelin secretion of 42 obese and 43 normal weight women in a randomized crossover design. Ghrelin and cortisol concentrations were measured and ratings of stress were also recorded in response to a psychological stressor (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). Ghrelin samples were collected in the fasting state one time before participating in the TSST and one time before a control session. After the TSST, respectively, control session participants had a standardized ad libitum meal. 30 and 60 min after the TSST, respectively, control session preprandial ghrelin was measured again. Obese women showed lower pre- and postprandial release of ghrelin than normal weight controls. Moreover, obese women showed inhibited postprandial decrease of ghrelin secretion. Stress did not affect postprandial ghrelin secretion, but inhibited food intake in all subjects. The present data provide further evidence of altered ghrelin release in obesity. Acute stress did not affect postprandial ghrelin secretion, but inhibited food intake in all subjects. Results are discussed with regard to biological and psychological regulation of hunger and satiety in obesity.

Keywords

Ghrelin Stress Obesity Women 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Trier in April 2012.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Greeno CG, Wing RR (1994) Stress-induced eating. Psychol Bull 115:444–464. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.115.3.444 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cummings DE, Weigle DS, Frayo RS, Breen PA, Ma MK, Dellinger EP et al (2002) Plasma ghrelin levels after diet-induced weight loss or gastric bypass surgery. N Engl J Med 346(21):1623–1630. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa012908 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Torres SJ, Nowson CA (2007) Relationship between stress, eating behavior, and obesity. Nutrition 23(11):887–894. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2007.08.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kojima M, Kangawa K (2005) Ghrelin: structure and function. Physiol Rev 85(2):495–522. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00012.2004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cummings DE (2006) Ghrelin and the short-and long-term regulation of appetite and body weight. Physiol Behav 89(1):71–84. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2006.05.022 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tschöp M, Weyer C, Tataranni PA, Devanarayan V, Ravussin E, Heiman ML (2001) Circulating ghrelin levels are decreased in human obesity. Diabetes 50(4):707–709. doi: 10.2337/diabetes.50.4.707 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ingelsson E, Larson MG, Yin X, Wang TJ, Meigs JB, Lipinska I et al (2008) Circulating ghrelin, leptin, and soluble leptin receptor concentrations and cardiometabolic risk factors in a community-based sample. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 93(8):3149–3157. doi: 10.1210/jc.2008-0207 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rouach V, Bloch M, Rosenberg N, Gilad S, Limor R, Stern N et al (2007) The acute ghrelin response to a psychological stress challenge does not predict the post-stress urge to eat. Psychoneuroendocrinology 32(6):693–702. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2007.04.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kristenssson E, Sundqvist M, Astin M, Kjerling M, Mattsson H, Dornonville de la Cour C et al (2006) Acute psychological stress raises plasma ghrelin in the rat. Regul Pept 134(2):114–117. doi: 10.1016/j.regpep.2006.02.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Asakawa A, Inui A, Kaga T, Yuzuriha H, Nagata T, Fujimiya M et al (2001) A role of ghrelin in neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress in mice. Neuroendocrinology 74(3):143–147. doi: 10.1159/000054680 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Monteleone P, Tortorella A, Scognamiglio P, Serino I, Monteleone AM, Maj M (2012) The acute salivary ghrelin response to a psychosocial stress is enhanced in symptomatic patients with bulimia nervosa: a pilot study. Neuropsychobiology 66(4):230–236. doi: 10.1159/000341877 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gluck ME, Yahav E, Hashim SA, Geliebter A (2014) Ghrelin levels after a cold pressor stress test in obese women with binge eating disorder. Psychosom Med 76(1):74–79. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000018 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sarker MR, Franks S, Caffrey J (2013) Direction of post-prandial ghrelin response associated with cortisol response, perceived stress and anxiety, and self-reported coping and hunger in obese women. Behav Brain Res 257:197–200. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2013.09.046 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zimmerman US, Buchmann A, Steffin B, Dieterle C, Uhr M (2006) Alcohol administration acutely inhibits ghrelin secretion in an experiment involving psychological stress. Addict Biol 12:17–21. doi: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2006.00026.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kirschbaum C, Pirke KM, Hellhammer DH (1993) The ‘Trier Social Stress Test’—a tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology 28:76–81. doi: 10.1159/000119004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Batterham RL, Cohen MA, Ellis SM, Le Roux CW, Withers DJ, Frost GS et al (2003) Inhibition of food intake in obese subjects by peptide YY3–36. N Engl J Med 349(10):941–948. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa030204 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    English PJ, Ghatei MA, Malik IA, Bloom SR, Wilding JPH (2002) Food fails to suppress ghrelin levels in obese humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 87(6):2984. doi: 10.1210/jc.87.6.2984 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Le Roux CW, Patterson M, Vincent RP, Hunt C, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR (2005) Postprandial plasma ghrelin is suppressed proportional to meal calorie content in normal-weight but not obese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 90(2):1068–1071. doi: 10.1210/jc.2004-1216 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cummings DE, Shannon MH (2003) Roles for ghrelin in the regulation of appetite and body weight. Arch Surg 138:389–396. doi: 10.1001/archsurg.138.4.389 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Geliebter A, Carnell S, Gluck ME (2013) Cortisol and ghrelin concentrations following a cold pressor stress test in overweight individuals with and without night eating. Int J Obes 37:1104–1108. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2012.166 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dressendörfer RA, Kirschbaum C, Rohde W, Stahl F, Strasburger CJ (1992) Synthesis of a cortisol-biotin conjugate and evaluation as a tracer in an immunoassay for salivary cortisol measurement. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 43:683–692. doi: 10.1016/0960-0760(92)90294-S CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hubel R, Läßle R, Lehrke S et al (2006) Laboratory measurement of cumulative food intake in humans: results on reliability. Appetite 46:57–62. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2005.10.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Di Francesco V, Barazzoni R, Bissoli L, Fantin F, Rizzotti P, Residori L et al (2010) The quantity of meal fat influences the profile of postprandial hormones as well as hunger sensation in healthy elderly people. J Am Med Direct Assoc 11:188–193. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2009.08.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lorig F, Kießl G, Laessle R (2015) Stress-related cortisol response and laboratory eating behavior in obese women. Eat Weight Disord. doi: 10.1007/s40519-015-0190-3 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kießl G, Laessle R (2016) Stress inhibits PYY secretion in obese and normal weight women. Eat Weight Disord 21(2):245–249. doi: 10.1007/s40519-015-0231-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mittelman SD, Klier K, Braun S, Azen C, Geffner ME, Buchanan TA (2010) Obese adolescents show impaired meal responses of the appetite-regulating hormones ghrelin and PYY. Obesity (Silver Spring) 18(5):918–925. doi: 10.1038/oby.2009.499 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Raspopow K, Abizaid A, Matheson K, Anisman H (2010) Psychosocial stressor effects on cortisol and ghrelin in emotional and non-emotional eaters: influence of anger and shame. Horm Behav 58(4):677–684. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2010.06.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Raspopow K, Abizaid A, Matheson K, Anisman H (2014) Anticipation of a psychosocial stressor differentially influences ghrelin, cortisol and food intake among emotional and non-emotional eaters. Appetite 74:35–43. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2013.11.018 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological and Clinical PsychologyUniversity of TrierTrierGermany
  2. 2.Department of Biological and Clinical PsychologyUniversity of TrierTrierGermany

Personalised recommendations