The interrelationship between orthorexia nervosa, perfectionism, body image and attachment style
- 2.6k Downloads
We investigated whether perfectionism, body image, attachment style, and self-esteem are predictors of orthorexia nervosa.
A cohort of 220 participants completed a self-administered, online questionnaire consisting of five measures: ORTO-15, the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scale (MBSRQ-AS), the Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ), and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (RSES).
Correlation analysis revealed that higher orthorexic tendencies significantly correlated with higher scores for perfectionism (self-oriented, others-oriented and socially prescribed), appearance orientation, overweight preoccupation, self-classified weight, and fearful and dismissing attachment styles. Higher orthorexic tendencies also correlated with lower scores for body areas satisfaction and a secure attachment style. There was no significant correlation between orthorexia nervosa and self-esteem. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that overweight preoccupation, appearance orientation and the presence of an eating disorder history were significant predictors of orthorexia nervosa with a history of an eating disorder being the strongest predictor.
Orthorexia nervosa shares similarities with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa with regards to perfectionism, body image attitudes, and attachment style. In addition, a history of an eating disorder strongly predicts orthorexia nervosa. These findings suggest that these disorders might be on the same spectrum of disordered eating.
KeywordsAttachment Body image Eating disorder Orthorexia nervosa ORTO-15 Perfectionism
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Both authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 1.Bratman S (1997) Orthorexia nervosa. Yoga J: 42–50. http://www.orthorexia.com/original-orthorexia-essay/. Accessed May 2015
- 3.Bratman S, Knight D (2000) Health food junkies. Orthorexia nervosa: overcoming the obsession with healthful eating. Brodways Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 8.Brytek-Matera A (2012) Orthorexia nervosa–an eating disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder or disturbed eating habit. Arch Psychiatry Psychother 1:55–60. http://www.archivespp.pl/uploads/images/2012_14_1/BrytekMatera55__APP1_2012.pdf
- 22.Hewit PL, Flett GL (2004) Multidimensional perfectionism scale: technical manual. Multi-Health Systems, TorontoGoogle Scholar
- 23.Cash TF (2000) The multidimensional body-self relations questionnaire user’s manual, 3rd edn. Old Dominion University, NorfolkGoogle Scholar
- 24.Griffin DW, Bartholomew K (1994) The metaphysics of measurement: the case of adult attachment. In: Bartholomew K, Perlman DP (eds) Advances in personal relationships: attachment processes in adult relationships, vol 5. Jessica Kingsley, London, pp 17–52Google Scholar
- 25.Rosenberg M (1979) Conceiving the self. Basic Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 26.Hrabosky JI, Cash TF, Veale D, Neziroglu F, Soll EA, Garner DM, Strachan-Kinser M, Bakke B, Clauss LJ, Phillips KA (2009) Multidimensional body image comparisons among patients with eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and clinical controls: a multisite study. Body Image 6(3):155–163. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.03.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar