Advertisement

How can the recall of early affiliative memories with peers influence on disordered eating behaviours?

  • Ana Laura MendesEmail author
  • Joana Marta-Simões
  • Cláudia Ferreira
Original Article

Abstract

The present study aimed to explore the role of early affiliative memories with peers on the adoption of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours through the mechanisms of external shame and self-judgment. The sample used in the current study comprised 632 women from the community, aged between 18 and 60 years old.The tested model explained 22 % of eating psychopathology’s variance and showed excellent model fit indices. Results indicated that the impact of the recall of early positive memories with peers on eating psychopathology was fully carried through the mechanisms of external shame and self-judgment. In fact, these findings seem to suggest that the lack of warm and safe affiliative memories with peers is linked to higher levels of shame (e.g., feelings of inferiority and inadequacy), and also to higher vulnerability to engage in maladaptive emotional strategies (such as self-judgmental attitudes), which appears to explain the increase of disordered eating behaviours.These findings contribute to the understanding of the impact of peer-related early affiliative memories in the engagement in disordered eating. Furthermore, this study has significant clinical implications, emphasizing the importance of targeting shame and maladaptive emotional strategies, especially in a context involving early adverse emotional experiences with peers.

Keywords

Early affiliative memories Peer relationships External shame Self-judgment Eating psychopathology 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors of this manuscript declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Baumeister RF, Leary MR (1995) The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychol Bull 117(3):497–529. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bowlby J (1969) Attachment: attachment and loss, vol 1. Hogarth Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bowlby J (1973) Separation, anxiety and anger: attachment and loss, vol 2. Hogarth Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Richter A, Gilbert P, McEwan K (2009) Development of an early memories of warmth and safeness scale and its relationship to psychopathology. Psychol Psychother 82:171–184. doi: 10.1348/147608308X395213 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gerhardt S (2004) Why love matters. How affection shapes a baby´s brain. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schore AN (1994) Affect regulation and the origin of the self: the neurobiology of emotional development. Erlbaum, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    DeHart T, Peham BW, Tennen H (2006) What lies beneath: parenting style and implicit self-esteem. J Exp Soc Psychol 42(1):1–17. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2004.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mikulincer M, Shaver RP (2004) Security-based self-representations in adulthood: Contents and processes. In: Rholes NS, Simpson JA (eds) Adult attachment: theory, research, and clinical implications. Guilford, New York, pp 159–195Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cheng H, Furnham A (2004) Perceived parental rearing style, self-esteem and self-criticism as predictors of happiness. J Happiness Stud 5(1):1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bifulco A, Moran P (1998) Wednesday’s child: research into women’s experience of neglect and abuse in childhood, and adult depression. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gilbert P, Irons C (2008) Shame, self-criticism, and self-compassion in adolescence. In: Allan NB, Sheeber LB (eds) Adolescence emotional development and the emergence of depressive disorders. Cambridge University Press, London, pp 195–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brewin C (2006) Understanding cognitive behaviour therapy: a retrieval competition account. Behav Res Ther 44(6):765–784. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2006.02.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gilbert P (2002) Body shame: a biopsychosocial conceptualisation and overview, with treatment implications. In: Gilbert P, Miles J (eds) Body shame: conceptualisation, research and treatment. Routledge, London, pp 3–54Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pinto Gouveia J, Matos M (2011) Can shame memories become a key to identity? The centrally of shame memories predicts psychopathology. Appl Cogn Psychol 25:281–290. doi: 10.1002/acp1689 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mikulincer M, Shaver P (2005) Mental representation and attachment security. In: Baldwin MW (ed) Interpersonal cognition. Guilford press, New York, pp 233–266Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gilbert P (1998) What is shame? some core issues and controversies. In: Gilbert P, Andrews B (eds) Shame: interpersonal behaviour, psychopathology and culture. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 3–36Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gilbert P, McEwan K, Matos M, Rivis A (2011) Fear of compassion: a study of psychological processes that block compassion. Psychol Psychother 84:239–255. doi: 10.1348/147608310X526511 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Matos M, Pinto-Gouveia J, Duarte C (2013) Internalizing early memories of shame and lack of safeness and warmth: the mediating role of shame on depression. Behav Cogn Psychother 41(4):479–493. doi: 10.1017/S1352465812001099 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gilbert P (2003) Evolution, social roles and the differences in shame and guilt. Soc Res 70(4):1205–1230Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gilbert P (2005) Compassion and cruelty: a biopsychosocial approach. In: Gilbert P (ed) Compassion: conceptualisation, research and use in psychotherapy. Routledge, London, pp 9–74Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cunha M, Matos M, Faria D, Zagalo S (2012) Shame memories and psychopathology in adolescence: the mediator effect of shame. Int J Psychol Psychol Ther 12(2):203–218Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Murray C, Waller G, Legg C (2000) Family dysfunction and bulimic psychopathology: the mediating role of shame. Int J Eat Disord 28(1):84–89. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(200007)28:1<84:AID-EAT10>3.0.CO;2-R CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tangney JP, Dearing RL (2002) Shame and Guilt. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lewis M (1992) Shame: the exposed self. The Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gilbert P (2007) The evolution of shame as a marker for relationship security: a biopsychosocial approach. In: Tracy J, Robin R, Tangney J (eds) The self- conscious emotions: theory and research. Guilford, New York, pp 283–309Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kim S, Thibodeau R, Jorgensen R (2011) Shame, guilt, and depressive symptoms: a meta-analytic review. Psychol Bull 137:68–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ferreira C, Pinto Gouveia J, Duarte C (2013) Drive for thinness as a women’s strategy to avoid inferiority. Int J Psychol Psychol Ther 13(1):15–29Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gee A, Troop NN (2003) Shame, depressive symptoms and eating weight and shape concerns in a nonclinical sample. Eat Weight Disord 8(1):72–75. doi: 10.1007/BF03324992 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Grabhorn R, Stenner H, Stangier U, Kaufhold J (2006) Social anxiety in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: the mediating role of shame. Clin Psychol Psychother 13(1):12–19. doi: 10.1002/cpp.463 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pinto-Gouveia J, Ferreira C, Duarte C (2014) Thinness in the pursuit for social safeness: an integrative model of social rank mentality to explain eating psychopathology. Clin Psychol Psychother 21(2):154–165. doi: 10.1002/cpp.1820 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gilbert P, Irons C (2005) Focused therapies and compassionate mind training for shame and self-attacking. In: Gilbert P (ed) Compassion: conceptualizations, research and use in psychotherapy. Routledge, London, pp 263–325Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Neff KD (2003) The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self Identity 2(3):223–250. doi: 10.1080/15298860390209035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bellew R, Gilbert P, Mills A, McEwan K, Gale C (2006) Eating attitudes and striving to avoid inferiority. Eat Disord 14:313–322. doi: 10.1080/10640260600796242 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Keith L, Gillanders D, Simpson S (2009) An exploration of the main sources of shame in an eating-disordered population. Clin Psychol Psychother 16:317–327. doi: 10.1002/cpp.629 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Van den Berg P, Wertheim EH, Thompson JK, Paxton SJ (2002) Development of body image, eating disturbance, and general psychological functioning in adolescent females: a replication using covariance structure modeling in an Australian sample. Int J Eat Disord 32:46–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Matos M, Pinto-Gouveia J (2014) Shamed by a parent or by others: the role of attachment in shame memories relation to depression. Int J Psychol Psychol Ther 14(2):217–244Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    WHO (1995) Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Reports of a WHO Expert Committee. WHO technical report series 854. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Poínhos R, Franchini B, Afonso C, Correia F, Teixeira VH, Moreira P, Durão C, Pinho O, Silva D, Lima Reis JP, Veríssimo T, de Almeida MDV (2009) Alimentação e estilos de vida da populacão Portuguesa: metodologia e resultados preliminares [Alimentation and life styles of the Portuguese population: methodology and preliminary results]. Alimentação Humana 15(3):43–60Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Goss K, Gilbert P, Allan S (1994) An exploration of shame measures––I: the ‘other as shamer’scale. Personal Individ Differ 17(5):713–717. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(94)90149-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Castilho P, Pinto-Gouveia J (2011) Autocompaixão: Estudo de validação da versão portuguesa da Escala de Autocompaixão e da sua relação com as experiências adversas da infância, a comparação social e a psicopatologia [Self-compasion: validation study of the Portuguese version of the Self-Compassion Scale and its relation with early childhood adverse experiences, social comparison and psychopathology]. Psychologica 54:203–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fairburn CG, Beglin SJ (1994) Assessment of eating disorders: interview of self-report questionnaire? Int J Eat Disord 16(4):363–370. doi: 10.1002/1098-108X(199412) CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Machado PP, Martins C, Vaz AR, Conceição E, Bastos AP, Gonçalves S (2014) Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire: psychometric properties and norms for the Portuguese population. Euro Eat Disord Rev 22(6):448–453. doi: 10.1002/erv.2318 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Arbuckle JL (2006) Amos (version 7.0) (Computer Program). SPSS, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cohen J, Cohen P, West SG, Aiken LS (2003) Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences, 3rd edn. Erlbaum, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hu L, Bentler P (1999) Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equ Model 6(1):1–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kline RB (2005) Principles and practice of structural equation modeling, 2nd edn. The Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Field A (2004) Discovering statistics using SPSS, 3rd edn. Sage Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Luce KH, Crowther JH, Pole M (2008) Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q): norms for undergraduate women. Int J Eat Disord 41(3):273–276. doi: 10.1002/eat.20504 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Psychology and Education SciencesUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.CINNEIC, Cognitive - Behavioral Research Center, Faculty of Psychology and Educational SciencesUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

Personalised recommendations