How can the recall of early affiliative memories with peers influence on disordered eating behaviours?
- 156 Downloads
The present study aimed to explore the role of early affiliative memories with peers on the adoption of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours through the mechanisms of external shame and self-judgment. The sample used in the current study comprised 632 women from the community, aged between 18 and 60 years old.The tested model explained 22 % of eating psychopathology’s variance and showed excellent model fit indices. Results indicated that the impact of the recall of early positive memories with peers on eating psychopathology was fully carried through the mechanisms of external shame and self-judgment. In fact, these findings seem to suggest that the lack of warm and safe affiliative memories with peers is linked to higher levels of shame (e.g., feelings of inferiority and inadequacy), and also to higher vulnerability to engage in maladaptive emotional strategies (such as self-judgmental attitudes), which appears to explain the increase of disordered eating behaviours.These findings contribute to the understanding of the impact of peer-related early affiliative memories in the engagement in disordered eating. Furthermore, this study has significant clinical implications, emphasizing the importance of targeting shame and maladaptive emotional strategies, especially in a context involving early adverse emotional experiences with peers.
KeywordsEarly affiliative memories Peer relationships External shame Self-judgment Eating psychopathology
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors of this manuscript declare no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 2.Bowlby J (1969) Attachment: attachment and loss, vol 1. Hogarth Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 3.Bowlby J (1973) Separation, anxiety and anger: attachment and loss, vol 2. Hogarth Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 5.Gerhardt S (2004) Why love matters. How affection shapes a baby´s brain. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 6.Schore AN (1994) Affect regulation and the origin of the self: the neurobiology of emotional development. Erlbaum, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
- 8.Mikulincer M, Shaver RP (2004) Security-based self-representations in adulthood: Contents and processes. In: Rholes NS, Simpson JA (eds) Adult attachment: theory, research, and clinical implications. Guilford, New York, pp 159–195Google Scholar
- 10.Bifulco A, Moran P (1998) Wednesday’s child: research into women’s experience of neglect and abuse in childhood, and adult depression. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 13.Gilbert P (2002) Body shame: a biopsychosocial conceptualisation and overview, with treatment implications. In: Gilbert P, Miles J (eds) Body shame: conceptualisation, research and treatment. Routledge, London, pp 3–54Google Scholar
- 15.Mikulincer M, Shaver P (2005) Mental representation and attachment security. In: Baldwin MW (ed) Interpersonal cognition. Guilford press, New York, pp 233–266Google Scholar
- 16.Gilbert P (1998) What is shame? some core issues and controversies. In: Gilbert P, Andrews B (eds) Shame: interpersonal behaviour, psychopathology and culture. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 3–36Google Scholar
- 19.Gilbert P (2003) Evolution, social roles and the differences in shame and guilt. Soc Res 70(4):1205–1230Google Scholar
- 20.Gilbert P (2005) Compassion and cruelty: a biopsychosocial approach. In: Gilbert P (ed) Compassion: conceptualisation, research and use in psychotherapy. Routledge, London, pp 9–74Google Scholar
- 21.Cunha M, Matos M, Faria D, Zagalo S (2012) Shame memories and psychopathology in adolescence: the mediator effect of shame. Int J Psychol Psychol Ther 12(2):203–218Google Scholar
- 22.Murray C, Waller G, Legg C (2000) Family dysfunction and bulimic psychopathology: the mediating role of shame. Int J Eat Disord 28(1):84–89. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(200007)28:1<84:AID-EAT10>3.0.CO;2-R CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 23.Tangney JP, Dearing RL (2002) Shame and Guilt. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 24.Lewis M (1992) Shame: the exposed self. The Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 25.Gilbert P (2007) The evolution of shame as a marker for relationship security: a biopsychosocial approach. In: Tracy J, Robin R, Tangney J (eds) The self- conscious emotions: theory and research. Guilford, New York, pp 283–309Google Scholar
- 27.Ferreira C, Pinto Gouveia J, Duarte C (2013) Drive for thinness as a women’s strategy to avoid inferiority. Int J Psychol Psychol Ther 13(1):15–29Google Scholar
- 31.Gilbert P, Irons C (2005) Focused therapies and compassionate mind training for shame and self-attacking. In: Gilbert P (ed) Compassion: conceptualizations, research and use in psychotherapy. Routledge, London, pp 263–325Google Scholar
- 36.Matos M, Pinto-Gouveia J (2014) Shamed by a parent or by others: the role of attachment in shame memories relation to depression. Int J Psychol Psychol Ther 14(2):217–244Google Scholar
- 37.WHO (1995) Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Reports of a WHO Expert Committee. WHO technical report series 854. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 38.Poínhos R, Franchini B, Afonso C, Correia F, Teixeira VH, Moreira P, Durão C, Pinho O, Silva D, Lima Reis JP, Veríssimo T, de Almeida MDV (2009) Alimentação e estilos de vida da populacão Portuguesa: metodologia e resultados preliminares [Alimentation and life styles of the Portuguese population: methodology and preliminary results]. Alimentação Humana 15(3):43–60Google Scholar
- 40.Castilho P, Pinto-Gouveia J (2011) Autocompaixão: Estudo de validação da versão portuguesa da Escala de Autocompaixão e da sua relação com as experiências adversas da infância, a comparação social e a psicopatologia [Self-compasion: validation study of the Portuguese version of the Self-Compassion Scale and its relation with early childhood adverse experiences, social comparison and psychopathology]. Psychologica 54:203–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 43.Arbuckle JL (2006) Amos (version 7.0) (Computer Program). SPSS, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
- 44.Cohen J, Cohen P, West SG, Aiken LS (2003) Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences, 3rd edn. Erlbaum, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
- 46.Kline RB (2005) Principles and practice of structural equation modeling, 2nd edn. The Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 47.Field A (2004) Discovering statistics using SPSS, 3rd edn. Sage Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar