Is sleep deprivation a contributor to obesity in children?

Review
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Sleep and Obesity

Abstract

Chronic lack of sleep (called “sleep deprivation”) is common in modern societies with 24/7 availability of commodities. Accumulating evidence supports the role of reduced sleep as contributing to the current obesity epidemic in children and youth. Longitudinal studies have consistently shown that short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and the development of obesity. Recent experimental studies have reported that sleep restriction leads to weight gain in humans. Increased food intake appears to be the main mechanism by which insufficient sleep results in weight gain. Voluntary sleep restriction has been shown to increase snacking, the number of meals eaten per day, and the preference for energy-dense foods. Although the causes of sleep loss in the pediatric population are numerous, more research looking at screen exposure before bedtime and its effects on sleep is needed given the pervasiveness of electronic media devices in today’s environment. Health professionals should routinely ask questions about sleep and promote a good night’s sleep because insufficient sleep impacts activity and eating behaviors. Future research should examine the clinical benefits of increasing sleep duration on eating behaviors and body weight control and determine the importance of adequate sleep to improve the treatment of obesity.

Keywords

Sleep loss Adiposity Appetite Eating behavior Energy balance Exercise 

References

  1. 1.
    Chaput JP, Tremblay A (2012) Insufficient sleep as a contributor to weight gain: an update. Curr Obes Rep 1:245–256. doi:10.1007/s13679-012-0026-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Keyes KM, Maslowsky J, Hamilton A, Schulenberg J (2015) The Great Sleep Recession: changes in sleep duration among US adolescents, 1991–2012. Pediatrics 135:460–468. doi:10.1542/peds.2014-2707 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Matricciani L, Olds T, Petkov J (2012) In search of lost sleep: secular trends in the sleep time of school-aged children and adolescents. Sleep Med Rev 16:203–211. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2011.03.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chaput JP (2011) Short sleep duration as a cause of obesity: myth or reality? Obes Rev 12:e2–e3. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00848.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chaput JP (2014) Lack of sleep can lead to weight gain. Elev Health 15:1–10Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dollman J, Ridley K, Olds T, Lowe E (2007) Trends in the duration of school-day sleep among 10- to 15-year-old South Australians between 1985 and 2004. Acta Paediatr 96:1011–1014CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Iglowstein I, Jenni O, Molinari L, Largo R (2003) Sleep duration from infancy to adolescence: reference values and generational trends. Pediatrics 111:302–307CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Thorleifsdottir B, Björnsson JK, Benediktsdottir B, Gislason T, Kristbjarnarson H (2002) Sleep and sleep habits from childhood to young adulthood over a 10-year period. J Psychosom Res 53:529–537CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Van den Bulck J (2010) The effects of media on sleep. Adolesc Med State Art Rev 21:418–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Van den Bulck J (2004) Television viewing, computer game playing, and Internet use and self-reported time to bed and time out of bed in secondary-school children. Sleep 27:101–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Carskadon MA (2011) Sleep in adolescents: the perfect storm. Pediatr Clin North Am 58:637–647. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2011.03.003 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gangwisch JE (2009) Epidemiological evidence for the links between sleep, circadian rhythms and metabolism. Obes Rev 10(Suppl 2):37–45. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2009.00663.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Calamaro C, Mason T, Ratcliffe S (2009) Adolescents living the 24/7 lifestyle: effects of caffeine and technology on sleep duration and daytime functioning. Pediatrics 123:1005–1010. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-3641 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    de Sousa I, Araućjo J, De Azevedo C (2007) The effect of a sleep hygiene education program on the sleep-wake cycle of Brazilian adolescent students. Sleep Biol Rhythms 5:251–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hirshkowitz M, Whiton K, Albert SM, Alessi C, Bruni O, DonCarlos L, Hazen N, Herman J, Katz ES, Kheirandish-Gozal L, Neubauer DN, O’Donnell AE, Ohayon M, Peever J, Rawding R, Sachdeva RC, Setters B, Vitiello MV, Ware JC (2015) National Sleep Foundation’s sleep time duration recommendations: methodology and results summary. Sleep Health 1:40–43. doi:10.1016/j.sleh.2014.12.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cappuccio FP, Taggart FM, Kandala NB, Currie A, Peile E, Stranges S, Miller MA (2008) Meta-analysis of short sleep duration and obesity in children and adults. Sleep 31:619–626PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chen X, Beydoun MA, Wang Y (2008) Is sleep duration associated with childhood obesity? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:265–274. doi:10.1038/oby.2007.63 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fatima Y (2015) Doi SA, Mamun AA Longitudinal impact of sleep on overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: a systematic review and bias-adjusted meta-analysis. Obes Rev 16:137–149. doi:10.1111/obr.12245 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Magee L, Hale L (2012) Longitudinal associations between sleep duration and subsequent weight gain: a systematic review. Sleep Med Rev 16:231–241. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2011.05.005 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nielsen LS, Danielsen KV, Sørensen TI (2011) Short sleep duration as a possible cause of obesity: critical analysis of the epidemiological evidence. Obes Rev 12:78–92. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00724.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Meltzer LJ, Montgomery-Downs HE, Insana SP, Walsh CM (2012) Use of actigraphy for assessment in pediatric sleep research. Sleep Med Rev 16:463–475. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2011.10.002 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gonnissen HK, Adam TC, Hursel R, Rutters F, Verhoef SP, Westerterp-Plantenga MS (2013) Sleep duration, sleep quality and body weight: parallel developments. Physiol Behav 121:112–116. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.04.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schmid SM, Hallschmid M, Schultes B (2015) The metabolic burden of sleep loss. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 3:52–62. doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70012-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Spiegel K, Tasali E, Penev P, Van Cauter E (2004) Brief communication: sleep curtailment in healthy young men is associated with decreased leptin levels, elevated ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite. Ann Intern Med 141:846–850CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chaput JP, St-Onge MP (2014) Increased food intake by insufficient sleep in humans: are we jumping the gun on the hormonal explanation? Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 5:116. doi:10.3389/fendo.2014.00116 Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Spaeth AM, Dinges DF, Goel N (2013) Effects of experimental sleep restriction on weight gain, caloric intake, and meal timing in healthy adults. Sleep 36:981–990PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Markwald RR, Melanson EL, Smith MR, Higgins J, Perreault L, Eckel RH, Wright KP Jr (2013) Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:5695–5700. doi:10.1073/pnas.1216951110 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hart CN, Carskadon MA, Considine RV, Fava JL, Lawton J, Raynor HA, Jelalian E, Owens J, Wing R (2013) Changes in children’s sleep duration on food intake, weight, and leptin. Pediatrics 132:e1473–e1480. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-1274 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chaput JP (2010) A good night’s sleep for a healthier population. Am J Prev Med 38:349. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2009.10.043 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ayas NT (2010) If you weight too much, maybe you should try sleeping more. Sleep 33:143–144PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Young T (2008) Increasing sleep duration for a healthier (and less obese?) population tomorrow. Sleep 31:593–594PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chaput JP (2014) Sleep patterns, diet quality and energy balance. Physiol Behav 134:86–91. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.09.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shechter A, Rising R, Albu JB, St-Onge MP (2013) Experimental sleep curtailment causes wake-dependent increases in 24-h energy expenditure as measured by whole-room indirect calorimetry. Am J Clin Nutr 98:1433–1439. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.069427 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Klingenberg L, Sjödin A, Holmbäck U, Astrup A, Chaput JP (2012) Short sleep duration and its association with energy metabolism. Obes Rev 13:565–577. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.00991.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    St-Onge MP (2013) The role of sleep duration in the regulation of energy balance: effects on energy intakes and expenditure. J Clin Sleep Med 9:73–80. doi:10.5664/jcsm.2348 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chapman CD, Benedict C, Brooks SJ, Schiöth HB (2012) Lifestyle determinants of the drive to eat: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 96:492–497. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.039750 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chaput JP, Klingenberg L, Astrup A, Sjödin AM (2011) Modern sedentary activities promote overconsumption of food in our current obesogenic environment. Obes Rev 12:12–20. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00772.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Beebe DW, Simon S, Summer S, Hemmer S, Strotman D, Dolan LM (2013) Dietary intake following experimentally restricted sleep in adolescents. Sleep 36:827–834. doi:10.5665/sleep.2704 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Benedict C, Brooks SJ, O’Daly OG, Almèn MS, Morell A, Åberg K, Gingnell M, Schultes B, Hallschmid M, Broman JE, Larsson EM, Schiöth HB (2012) Acute sleep deprivation enhances the brain’s response to hedonic food stimuli: an fMRI study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:E443–E447. doi:10.1210/jc.2011-2759 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    St-Onge MP, McReynolds A, Trivedi ZB, Roberts AL, Sy M, Hirsch J (2012) Sleep restriction leads to increased activation of brain regions sensitive to food stimuli. Am J Clin Nutr 95:818–824. doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.027383 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    St-Onge MP, Wolfe S, Sy M, Shechter A, Hirsch J (2014) Sleep restriction increases the neuronal response to unhealthy food in normal-weight individuals. Int J Obes (Lond) 38:411–416. doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.114 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chaput JP (2010) Short sleep duration promoting overconsumption of food: a reward-driven eating behavior? Sleep 33:1135–1136PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Roberts DF, Foehr UG, Rideout V (2005) Generation M: Media in the lives of 8–18 year olds. Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo ParkGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rideout VJ, Foehr UG, Roberts DF (2010) Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8- to 18-year-olds. Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo ParkGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bruni O, Sette S, Fontanesi L, Baiocco R, Laghi F, Baumgartner E (2015) Technology use and sleep quality in preadolescence and adolescence. J Clin Sleep Med. doi:10.1080/02699931.2015.1074547 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chaput JP, Leduc G, Boyer C, Bélanger P, LeBlanc AG, Borghese MM, Tremblay MS (2014) Electronic screens in children’s bedrooms and adiposity, physical activity and sleep: do the number and type of electronic devices matter? Can J Public Health 105:e273–e279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chahal H, Fung C, Kuhle S, Veugelers PJ (2012) Availability and night-time use of electronic entertainment and communication devices are associated with short sleep duration and obesity among Canadian children. Pediatr Obes 8:42–51. doi:10.1111/j.2047-6310.2012.00085.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cain N, Gradisar M (2010) Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: a review. Sleep Med 11:735–742. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2010.02.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    American Academy of Pediatrics (2013) Children, adolescents, and the media. Pediatrics 132:958–961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fonken LK, Nelson RJ (2014) The effects of light at night on circadian clocks and metabolism. Endocr Rev 35:648–670. doi:10.1210/er.2013-1051 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Higuchi S, Motohashi Y, Liu Y, Maeda A (2005) Effects of playing a computer game using bright display on presleep physiological variables, sleep latency, slow wave sleep and REM sleep. J Sleep Res 14:267–273CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dworak M, Schierl T, Bruns T, Struder HK (2007) Impact of singular excessive computer game and television exposure on sleep patterns and memory performance of school-aged children. Pediatrics 120:978–985CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Higuchi S, Motohashi Y, Liu Y, Ahara M, Kaneko Y (2003) Effects of VDT tasks with a bright display at night on melatonin, core temperature, heart rate, and sleepiness. J Appl Physiol 94:1773–1776CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chang AM, Aeschbach D, Duffy JF, Czeisler CA (2015) Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112:1232–1237. doi:10.1073/pnas.1418490112 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wood B, Rea MS, Plitnick B, Figueiro MG (2013) Light level and duration of exposure determine the impact of self-luminous tablets on melatonin suppression. Appl Ergon 44:237–240. doi:10.1016/j.apergo.2012.07.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lucas RJ, Peirson SN, Berson DM, Brown TM, Cooper HM, Czeisler CA, Figueiro MG, Gamlin PD, Lockley SW, O’Hagan JB, Price LL, Provencio I, Skene DJ, Brainard GC (2014) Measuring and using light in the melanopsin age. Trends Neurosci 37:1–9. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2013.10.004 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Garrison MM, Liekweg K, Christakis DA (2011) Media use and child sleep: the impact of content, timing, and environment. Pediatrics 128:29–35. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3304 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Adams SK, Daly JF, Williford DN (2013) Adolescent sleep and cellular phone use: recent trends and implications for research. Health Serv Insights 6:99–103. doi:10.4137/HSI.S11083 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Magee CA, Lee JK, Vella SA (2014) Bidirectional relationships between sleep duration and screen time in early childhood. JAMA Pediatr 168:465–470CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gruber R, Carrey N, Weiss SK, Frappier JY, Rourke L, Brouillette RT, Wise MS (2014) Position statement on pediatric sleep for psychiatrists. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 23:174–195PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tremblay MS, LeBlanc AG, Kho ME, Saunders TJ, Larouche R, Colley RC, Goldfield GS, Connor Gorber S (2011) Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 8:98. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-98 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Haines J, McDonald J, O’Brien A, Sherry B, Bottino CJ, Schmidt ME, Taveras EM (2013) Healthy Habits, Happy Homes: randomized trial to improve household routines for obesity prevention among preschool-aged children. JAMA Pediatr 167:1072–1079. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.2356 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Golem DL, Martin-Biggers JT, Koenings MM, Davis KF, Byrd-Bredbenner C (2014) An integrative review of sleep for nutrition professionals. Adv Nutr 5:742–759. doi:10.3945/an.114.006809 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Chaput JP (2015) Sleeping more to improve appetite and body weight control: dream or reality? Am J Clin Nutr 101:5–6. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.101543 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cizza G, Marincola P, Mattingly M, Williams L, Mitler M, Skarulis M, Csako G (2010) Treatment of obesity with extension of sleep duration: a randomized, prospective, controlled trial. Clin Trials 7:274–285. doi:10.1177/1740774510368298 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chaput JP, Tremblay A (2012) Adequate sleep to improve the treatment of obesity. CMAJ 184:1975–1976. doi:10.1503/cmaj.120876 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research GroupChildren’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research InstituteOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations