Advertisement

The association between internet addiction and disordered eating attitudes among Turkish high school students

  • Ahmet Hamdi Alpaslan
  • Uğur Koçak
  • Kadriye Avci
  • Hanife Uzel Taş
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes (DEAs) and internet addiction (IA) among a non-clinical sample of adolescents and to investigate the relationship between IA, DEAs, and selected socio-demographic characteristics.

Methods

A total of 584 adolescents (34.8 % n = 203 males and 65.2 % n = 381 females) completed three instruments: the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26), the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and a socio-demographic questionnaire.

Results

It was found that 15.2 % (n = 89) of the participants have DEAs, and IA was detected in 10.1 % (n = 59) of the participants. There was a statistically significant difference between the IA and non-IA groups in terms of body mass index (χ 2 = 10.31, p < 0.01). We found a significant positive correlation between the IAT and EAT-26 scores (r = 0.34, p < 0.01). The presence of DEAs, male gender, and high BMI were found to be the strongest predictor variables of IA.

Conclusions

IA and DEAs are relatively frequent phenomena among young students in Turkey. Future studies should attempt to determine the predictive factors by identifying the causal relations between IA and DEAs.

Keywords

Internet addiction Disordered eating attitudes Adolescents Body mass index 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the participants in the present study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The study was approved by the local ethics committee and adhered to the Declaration of Helsinki.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Odac H, Kalkan M (2010) Problematic internet use, loneliness and dating anxiety among young adult university students. Comput Educ 55:1091–1097. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2010.05.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Internet World Stats (2014) Usage and population statistics miniwatts marketing group. http://www.internetworldstats.com/. Accessed 8 April 2015
  3. 3.
    TUIK (2010) Information and communication technology (ICT) usage survey in households and individuals. http://www.turkstat.gov.tr. Accessed 8 April 2015
  4. 4.
    Mohammadbeigi A, Hashiani A, Ghamari F, Mohammadsalehi N (2011) Internet addiction and modeling its risk factors in medical students, Iran. Indian J Psychol Med 33:158. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.92068 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, DSM-5®, 5th edn. American Psychiatric Publishing, Arlington, VAGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Canan F, Yildirim O, Ustunel TY et al (2014) The relationship between internet addiction and body mass index in Turkish adolescents. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 17:40–45. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2012.0733 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Durkee T, Kaess M, Carli V et al (2012) Prevalence of pathological internet use among adolescents in Europe: demographic and social factors. Addiction 107:2210–2222. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03946.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tahiroglu AY, Celik GG, Uzel M et al (2008) Internet use among Turkish adolescents. Cyberpsychol Behav 11:537–543. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2007.0165 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yen J-Y, Yen C-F, Chen C-C et al (2007) Family factors of internet addiction and substance use experience in Taiwanese adolescents. Cyberpsychol Behav 10:323–329. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2006.9948 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Weinstein A, Lejoyeux M (2010) Internet addiction or excessive internet use. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 36:277–283. doi: 10.3109/00952990.2010.491880 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bernardi S, Pallanti S (2009) Internet addiction: a descriptive clinical study focusing on comorbidities and dissociative symptoms. Compr Psychiatry 50:510–516. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2008.11.011 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lam LT, Peng Z, Mai J, Jing J (2009) Factors associated with internet addiction among adolescents. Cyberpsychol Behav 12:551–555. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2009.0036 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tsitsika A, Critselis E, Janikian M et al (2011) Association between internet gambling and problematic internet use among adolescents. J Gambl Stud 27:389–400. doi: 10.1007/s10899-010-9223-z CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim Y, Park JYY, Kim SBB et al (2010) The effects of Internet addiction on the lifestyle and dietary behavior of Korean adolescents. Nutr Res Pract 4:51–57. doi: 10.4162/nrp.2010.4.1.51 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goldschmidt AB, Aspen VP, Sinton MM et al (2008) Disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in overweight youth. Obesity 16:257–264. doi: 10.1038/oby.2007.48 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Field AE, Austin SB, Taylor CB et al (2003) Relation between dieting and weight change among preadolescents and adolescents. Pediatrics 112:900–906. doi: 10.1542/peds.112.4.900 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Killen JD, Taylor CB, Hayward C et al (1996) Weight concerns influence the development of eating disorders: a 4-year prospective study. J Consult Clin Psychol 64:936–940. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.64.5.936 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Patton GC, Selzer R, Coffey C et al (1999) Onset of adolescent eating disorders: population based cohort study over 3 years. BMJ 318:765–768. doi: 10.1136/bmj.318.7186.765 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Eapen V, Mabrouk AA, Bin-Othman S (2006) Disordered eating attitudes and symptomatology among adolescent girls in the United Arab Emirates. Eat Behav 7:53–60. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2005.07.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Musaiger AO, Al-Mannai M, Tayyem R et al (2013) Risk of disordered eating attitudes among adolescents in seven Arab countries by gender and obesity: a cross-cultural study. Appetite 60:162–167. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.10.012 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    World Health Organization (2000) Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO consultation. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 894(i–xii):1–253Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Young K (1998) Internet addiction: the emergence of a new clinical disorder. Cyberpsychol Behav 1:237–244. doi: 10.1089/cpb.1998.1.237 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Young KS. The internet addiction test. Bradford. http://netaddiction.com/internet-addiction-test. Accessed 24 April 2015
  24. 24.
    Khazaal Y, Billieux J, Thorens G et al (2008) French validation of the internet addiction test. Cyberpsychol Behav 11:703–706. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2007.0249 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bayraktar F (2001) The role of internet use in adolescent development (unpublished master’s thesis). Ege University, IzmirGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Balta ÖÇ, Horzum MB (2008) The factors that affect internet addiction of students in a web based learning environment. Ankara University. J Fac Educ Sci 41:187–205Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Garner DM, Garfinkel PE (1979) The eating attitudes test: an index of the symptoms of anorexia nervosa. Psychol Med 9:273–279. doi: 10.1017/S0033291700030762 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Savasir I, Erol N (1989) Eating Attitude Test: anorexia nervosa symptom index. Turk J Psychol 23:19–25Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Canan F, Ataoglu A, Nichols LA et al (2010) Evaluation of psychometric properties of the internet addiction scale in a sample of Turkish high school students. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 13:317–320. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2009.0160 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ni X, Yan H, Chen S, Liu Z (2009) Factors influencing internet addiction in a sample of freshmen university students in China. Cyberpsychol Behav 12:327–330. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2008.0321 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tsai HF, Cheng SH, Yeh TL et al (2009) The risk factors of Internet addiction—a survey of university freshmen. Psychiatry Res 167:294–299. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2008.01.015 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Frangos CC, Frangos CC, Sotiropoulos I (2011) Problematic internet use among Greek university students: an ordinal logistic regression with risk factors of negative psychological beliefs, pornographic sites, and online games. Cyberpsychol Behav 14:51–58. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2009.0306 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Choi K, Son H, Park M et al (2009) Internet overuse and excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents: regular article. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 63:455–462. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2009.01925.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Levy JA, Strombeck R (2002) Health benefits and risks of the internet. J Med Syst 26:495–510. doi: 10.1023/A:1020288508362 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cao H, Sun Y, Wan Y et al (2011) Problematic internet use in Chinese adolescents and its relation to psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction. BMC Public Health 11:802. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-802 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kugu N, Akyuz G, Dogan O et al (2006) The prevalence of eating disorders among university students and the relationship with some individual characteristics. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 40:129–135. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1614.2006.01759.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Altug A, Elal G, Slade P, Tekcan A (2000) The eating attitudes test (EAT) in Turkish university students: relationship with sociodemographic, social and individual variables. Eat Weight Disord 5:152–160. doi: 10.1007/bf03353438 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jones JM, Bennett S, Olmsted MP et al (2001) Disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in teenaged girls: a school-based study. CMAJ 165:547–552PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Haines J, Ziyadeh NJ, Franko DL et al (2011) Screening high school students for eating disorders: Validity of brief behavioral and attitudinal measures. J Sch Health 81:530–535. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2011.00623.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tao ZL, Liu Y (2009) Is there a relationship between internet dependence and eating disorders? A comparison study of internet dependents and non-internet dependents. Eat Weight Disord 14:77–83. doi: 10.1007/bf03327803 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rodgers RF, Melioli T, Laconi S et al (2013) Internet addiction symptoms, disordered eating, and body image avoidance. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 16:56–60. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2012.1570 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmet Hamdi Alpaslan
    • 1
  • Uğur Koçak
    • 2
  • Kadriye Avci
    • 3
  • Hanife Uzel Taş
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of MedicineAfyon Kocatepe UniversityAfyonkarahisarTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of MedicineAfyon Kocatepe UniversityAfyonkarahisarTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Public Health, Faculty of MedicineAfyon Kocatepe UniversityAfyonkarahisarTurkey

Personalised recommendations