Assessing the factor structure of the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT) in an overweight and obese Croatian non-clinical sample

  • Alessandra Pokrajac-Bulian
  • Marko Tončić
  • Petra Anić
Original Article



The study objectives are to investigate the psychometric properties of the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT-A) in a general sample of overweight and obese persons in Croatia, to evaluate structure differences between men and women and to examine the relationship with other measures of body dissatisfaction as well as with objective body mass measure.


This study included 320 adults (156 women and 164 men; aged between 20 and 71) with BMIs ranging from 24 to 48.83 kg/m2.


The analysis confirmed a structural one-factor model for BUT-A. The one-factor model fits the data equally as well as the more complex five-factor model did and should be considered a more robust, parsimonious and adequate model. Female participants showed higher results (higher body uneasiness), but the importance of items is roughly comparable between genders. The BUT-A score significantly contributes to the prediction of general body dissatisfaction, even after gender and BMI are controlled. The multifaceted nature of the BUT-A might explain the relatively low measure of general body dissatisfaction in this sample. Congruent with previous studies, obese subjects expressed dissatisfaction with their body on the figure rating scale by selecting the ideal figure two units thinner than their current body figure. In overweight and obese men, body dissatisfaction is lower than in women.


The BUT-A can be a reliable one-dimensional tool for the assessment of body uneasiness in a wide range of samples, including obese individuals.


Body Uneasiness Test (BUT-A) Body image Psychometric properties 



This research is a part of the Project ‘Biopsychosocial aspects of obesity’ (number: supported by Grant from University of Rijeka, Croatia.

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessandra Pokrajac-Bulian
    • 1
  • Marko Tončić
    • 1
  • Petra Anić
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities and Social SciencesUniversity of RijekaRijekaCroatia

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