Advertisement

Psychometric properties of the Italian Yale Food Addiction Scale in overweight and obese patients

  • Marco InnamoratiEmail author
  • Claudio Imperatori
  • Gian Mauro Manzoni
  • Dorian A. Lamis
  • Gianluca Castelnuovo
  • Antonino Tamburello
  • Stella Tamburello
  • Mariantonietta Fabbricatore
Original Article

Abstract

Aim

To assess the dimensionality and psychometric properties of an Italian version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) in a sample of obese/overweight patients attending low-energy diet therapy.

Methods

Participants were 300 overweight and obese patients who were admitted to a private medical center in Rome, Italy. Controls were 300 (231 women and 69 men) adults from the general population. All of the participants were administered the YFAS and the binge eating scale (BES).

Results

The one-factor model of the YFAS reported in previous studies did not fit the data [\( \chi^{ 2}_{ 20 9} \) = 466.69, p < 0.001, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.07; 90 % CI: 0.06/0.08; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.91; weighted root mean square residual (WRMR) = 1.40]. Through item analysis, it was suggested that five items (items #10, #11, #22, #24, and #25) with low item–total correlations should be removed from the measure. A 16-item one-factor model revealed a better fit to the data (\( \chi^{ 2}_{ 10 4} \) = 174.56; p < 0.001; RMSEA = 0.05; 90 % CI: 0.04/0.07; CFI = 0.96), although the WRMR was slightly higher than that suggested as an indicator of good fit (WRMR = 1.01). The YFAS-16 had satisfactory internal consistency; it was able to discriminate obese patients from controls and strongly correlated with BES scores.

Conclusion

The YFAS-16 assesses all of the “symptoms” represented in the original version and has satisfactory psychometric properties, although the percentage of food addiction diagnoses according to the YFAS-16 is lower than the percentage of diagnoses according to the original version of the questionnaire.

Keywords

Yale Food Addiction Scale Obesity Overweight Structural equation modeling 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the SISDCA study group on Food Addiction (Melchionda Nazario, Ballardini Donatella, Castelnuovo Gianluca, Ceccarini Martina, Donini Lorenzo Maria, Gravina Giovanni, Luxardi Gian Luigi, Manzato Lia, Manzoni Gian Mauro, Molinari Enrico, Poggiogalle Eleonora, Schumann Romana). This study was not funded by any grants.

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Fortuna JL (2012) The obesity epidemic and food addiction: clinical similarities to drug dependence. J Psychoactive Drugs 44:56–63. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2012.662092 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Davis C, Carter JC (2009) Compulsive overeating as an addiction disorder. A review of theory and evidence. Appetite 53:1–8. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2009.05.018 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Avena NM (2011) Food and addiction: implications and relevance to eating disorders and obesity. Curr Drug Abuse Rev 4:131–132 CDAR-4-3-131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Davis C, Curtis C, Levitan RD, Carter JC, Kaplan AS, Kennedy JL (2011) Evidence that ‘food addiction’ is a valid phenotype of obesity. Appetite 57:711–717. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2011.08.017 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gearhardt AN, Corbin WR, Brownell KD (2009) Food addiction: an examination of the diagnostic criteria for dependence. J Addict Med 3:1–7. doi: 10.1097/ADM.0b013e318193c993 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pelchat ML (2009) Food addiction in humans. J Nutr 139:620–622. doi: 10.3945/jn.108.097816 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Tomasi D, Baler RD (2013) Obesity and addiction: neurobiological overlaps. Obes Rev 14:2–18. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.01031.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    von Deneen KM, Liu Y (2011) Obesity as an addiction: why do the obese eat more? Maturitas 68:342–345. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.01.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Avena NM, Rada P, Hoebel BG (2009) Sugar and fat bingeing have notable differences in addictive-like behavior. J Nutr 139:623–628. doi: 10.3945/jn.108.097584 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blumenthal DM, Gold MS (2010) Neurobiology of food addiction. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 13:359–365. doi: 10.1097/MCO.0b013e32833ad4d4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gearhardt AN, Corbin WR, Brownell KD (2009) Preliminary validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Appetite 52:430–436. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2008.12.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—DSMIV-TR, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gearhardt AN, White MA, Masheb RM, Morgan PT, Crosby RD, Grilo CM (2012) An examination of the food addiction construct in obese patients with binge eating disorder. Int J Eat Disord 45:657–663. doi: 10.1002/eat.20957 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gearhardt AN, White MA, Masheb RM, Grilo CM (2013) An examination of food addiction in a racially diverse sample of obese patients with binge eating disorder in primary care settings. Compr Psychiatry 54:500–505. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2012.12.009 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Meule A, Heckel D, Kubler A (2012) Factor structure and item analysis of the Yale Food Addiction Scale in obese candidates for bariatric surgery. Eur Eat Disord Rev 20:419–422. doi: 10.1002/erv.2189 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Clark SM, Saules KK (2013) Validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale among a weight-loss surgery population. Eat Behav 14:216–219. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2013.01.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Eichen DM, Lent MR, Goldbacher E, Foster GD (2013) Exploration of “Food Addiction” in overweight and obese treatment-seeking adults. Appetite 67:22–24. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2013.03.008 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Burmeister JM, Hinman N, Koball A, Hoffmann DA, Carels RA (2013) Food addiction in adults seeking weight loss treatment. Implications for psychosocial health and weight loss. Appetite 60:103–110. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.09.013 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pedram P, Wadden D, Amini P, Gulliver W, Randell E, Cahill F et al (2013) Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population. PLoS One 8:e74832. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074832 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gearhardt AN, Yokum S, Orr PT, Stice E, Corbin WR, Brownell KD (2011) Neural correlates of food addiction. Arch Gen Psychiatry 68:808–816. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.32 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Meule A, Vögele C, Kübler A (2012) German translation and validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Diagnostica 58:115–126. doi: 10.1026/0012-1924/a000047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Atkinson RL, Dietz WH, Foreyt JP, Goodwin NJ, Hill JO, Hirsch J et al (1993) Very low-calorie diets. National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity, National Institutes of Health. JAMA 270:967–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Innamorati M, Imperatori C, Balsamo M, Tamburello S, Belvederi Murri M, Contardi A et al Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) Discriminates between obese and overweight patients with and without binge eating tendencies: the Italian version of the FCQ-T. J Pers Assess 2014:1–8. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2014.909449
  24. 24.
    First MB, Spitzer RL, Gibbon M, Williams JBW (2002) Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR axis I disorders, research version, patient edition, SCID-I/P. New York: Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric InstituteGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gormally J, Black S, Daston S, Rardin D (1982) The assessment of binge eating severity among obese persons. Addict Behav 7:47–55. doi: 10.1016/0306-4603(82)90024-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marcus MD, Wing RR, Hopkins J (1988) Obese binge eaters: affect, cognitions, and response to behavioural weight control. J Consult Clin Psychol 56:433–439. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.56.3.433 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yanovski SZ, Leet M, Yanovski JA, Flood M, Gold PW, Kissileff HR et al (1992) Food selection and intake of obese women with binge-eating disorder. Am J Clin Nutr 56:975–980. doi: 10.1002/1098-108X(199403)15:2<135:AID-EAT2260150205>3.0.CO;2-I PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Di Bernardo M, Barciulli E, Ricca V, Manucci E, Moretti S, Cabras PL et al (1998) Validazione della versione italiana della Binge Eating Scale in pazienti obesi. Minerva Psichiatr 39:125–130Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Muthén LK, Muthén BO (1998–2010) Mplus User’s Guide, 6th edn. Muthén & Muthén, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Browne MW, Cudek R (1993) Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In: Long JS (ed) Testing structural equation models. Sage, Newbury Park, pp 136–162Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hu L, Bentler PM (1999) Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equ Model Multidiscip J 6:1–55. doi: 10.1080/10705519909540118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yu CY (2002) Evaluating cutoff criteria of model fit indices for latent variable models with binary and continuous outcomes. University of California, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Karhunen L, Lyly M, Lapvetelainen A, Kolehmainen M, Laaksonen DE, Lahteenmaki L et al (2012) Psychobehavioural factors are more strongly associated with successful weight management than predetermined satiety effect or other characteristics of diet. J Obes 2012:274068. doi: 10.1155/2012/274068 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wing RR, Hill JO (2001) Successful weight loss maintenance. Annu Rev Nutr 21:323–341. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.21.1.323 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Geisinger KF (1994) Cross-cultural normative assessment: translation and adaptation issues influencing the normative interpretation of assessment instruments. Psychol Assess 6:304–312. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.6.4.304 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Van de Vijver F, Hambleton RK (1996) Translating tests: some practical guidelines. Eur Psychol 1:89–99. doi: 10.1027/1016-9040.1.2.89 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Flint AJ, Gearhardt AN, Corbin WR, Brownell KD, Field AE, Rimm EB (2014) Food-addiction scale measurement in 2 cohorts of middle-aged and older women. Am J Clin Nutr 99:578–586. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.068965 CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Komatsu S (2008) Rice and sushi cravings: a preliminary study of food craving among Japanese females. Appetite 50:353–358. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2007.08.012 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Osman JL, Sobal J (2006) Chocolate cravings in American and Spanish individuals: biological and cultural influences. Appetite 47:290–301. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2006.04.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gortmaker SL, Must A, Perrin JM, Sobol AM, Dietz WH (1993) Social and economic consequences of overweight in adolescence and young adulthood. N Engl J Med 329:1008–1012. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199309303291406 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Maccoby EE, Maccoby NA (1954) The interview: a tool of social science. In: Lindzey G (ed) Handbook of social psychology. Addison-Wesley, Cambridge, pp 449–487Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Arnold HJ, Feldman DC (1981) Social desirability response bias in self-report choice situations. Acad Manag J 24:377–385. doi: 10.2307/255848 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, DSM-5, 5th edn. American Psychiatric Publishing, ArlingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marco Innamorati
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Claudio Imperatori
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gian Mauro Manzoni
    • 3
    • 4
  • Dorian A. Lamis
    • 5
  • Gianluca Castelnuovo
    • 4
    • 6
    • 7
  • Antonino Tamburello
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stella Tamburello
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mariantonietta Fabbricatore
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Università Europea di RomaRomeItaly
  2. 2.Istituto SkinnerRomeItaly
  3. 3.Faculty of PsychologyeCampus UniversityNovedrate, ComoItaly
  4. 4.SISDCA, Italian Society for the Study of Eating DisordersRomeItaly
  5. 5.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesEmory University School of Medicine AtlantaAtlantaUSA
  6. 6.Department of PsychologyCatholic University of MilanMilanItaly
  7. 7.Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Psychology Research LaboratoryVerbaniaItaly

Personalised recommendations