Advertisement

Which Flexibility Options Facilitate the Integration of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources in Electricity Systems?

  • Christoph Zöphel
  • Steffi Schreiber
  • Theresa Müller
  • Dominik Möst
Energy Markets (R Sioshansi and S Mousavian, Section Editors)
  • 255 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Energy Markets

Abstract

Purpose of Review

In the last decade, the growing penetration of renewable energy sources has induced an increasing research interest in the analysis of flexible energy systems. In particular, the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources, as wind and photovoltaic energy, requires flexibility to compensate the imbalances between energy demand and supply. The objective of the paper is to provide a comprehensive literature review about the role of flexibility options in different electricity systems with focus on Europe and selected countries.

Recent Findings

According to the present analysis, it can be pointed out that the portfolio of flexibility options and the interdependencies between them are based on the prevalent energy system in a country or region.

Summary

The research on flexibility measures is mainly driven by the observed energy system characteristics as well as the pursued climate protection strategy. Additionally, it is not possible to cover the prospective flexibility needs with one flexibility option. Moreover, the optimal portfolio of flexibility measures depends on the type of flexibility provision required, the cost-effectiveness and whether the considered energy system is on a national or transnational level.

Keywords

Flexibility options Residual load curve Renewable energy sources Flexible energy system Energy transition 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Dominik Möst declares no conflicts of interest.

Christoph Zöphel reports grants from Boysen TU Dresden Graduate School (Friedrich and Elisabeth Boysen-Foundation, Foundation for Research and Innovation), during the conduct of the study.

Steffi Schreiber reports grants from European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 691685, during the conduct of the study.

Theresa Müller reports grants from European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 691685, during the conduct of the study.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

  1. 1.
    IRENA. Renewable capacity statistics 2017. Abu Dhabi: International Renewable Energy Agency; 2017.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alizadeh M, Parsa Moghaddam M, Amjady N, Siano P, Sheikh-El-Eslami M. Flexibility in future power systems with high renewable penetration: a review. Renew Sust Energ Rev. 2016;57:1186–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    • Auer H, Haas R. On integrating large shares of variable renewables into the electricity system. Energy. 2016;115:1592–601. In contrast to the other two mentioned articles focusing on technological issues of system integration, this article is of interest as another perspective is taken: The article provides insights on the conditions to integrate even larger quantities of variable RES into the electricity system by using market-based principles and how, straightforward, a sustainable electricity system could work. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Barasa, D. Bogdanov, A. Oyewo and C. Breyer, A cost optimal resolution for sub-Saharan Africa powered by 100% renewables for year 2030 assumptions., in In 32nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Munich, 2016 June 20–24.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fernandes L, Ferreira P. Renewable energy scenarios in the Portuguese electricity system. Energy. 2014;69:51–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.02.098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bertsch J, Growitsch C, Lorenczik S, Nagl S. Flexibility in Europe’s power sector-an additional requirement or an automatic complement? Energy Econ. 2016;53:118–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2014.10.022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Blarke M, Lund H. The effectiveness of storage and relocation options in renewable energy systems. Renew Energy. 2008;33(7):1499–507.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2007.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bogdanov D, Breyer C. North-East Asian Super Grid for 100% renewable energy supply: optimal mix of energy technologies for electricity, gas and heat supply options. Energy Convers Manag. 2016;112:176–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2016.01.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. Bussar, M. Moos, R. Alvarez, P. Wolf, T. Thien, H. Chen, Z. Cai, M. Leuthold, D. Sauer and A. Moser, Optimal allocation and capacity of energy storage systems in a future European power system with 100% renewable energy generation. Energy Procedia (Elsevier Ltd), pp. 40–47, 2014.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    U. Caldera and C. Breyer, Impact of battery and water storage on the transition to an integrated 100% renewable energy power system for Saudi Arabia, in 11th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference, Düsseldorf, March 14–16, 2017.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dowell N, Staffel I. The role of flexible CCS in the UK's future energy system. Int J Greenhouse Gas Control. 2016;48(Part 2):327–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Juul N, Meibom P. Optimal configuration of an integrated power and transport system. Energy. 2011;36(5):3523–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2011.03.058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Drysdale B, Wu J, Jenkins N. Flexible demand in the GB domestic electricity sector in 2030. Appl Energy. 2015;139:281–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.11.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Strbac G, Aunedi M, Pudjianto D, Djapic P, Teng F, Sturt A, et al. Strategic assessment of the role and value of energy storage systems in the UK low carbon energy future: London; 2012.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    • G. Strbac, M. Aunedi, D. Pudjianto, F. Teng, P. Djapic, R. Druce, A. Carmel and K. Borkowski, Value of flexibility in a decarbonised grid and system externalities of low-carbon generation technologies. NERA Economic Consulting, Imperial College London, 2015. This article aims at explicitly identifying and quantifying the system integration costs of low-carbon generation technologies in the context of the future, largely decarbonised UK electricity system. As the electricity system of UK is only weakly connected to other countries, it has to provide its balancing needs by a large share by its own, so that this country is of special interest for quantifying system integration costs.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Aigner T, Jaehnert S, Doorman G, Gjengedal T. The effect of large-scale wind power on system balancing in Northern Europe. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy. 2012;3(4):751–9.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TSTE.2012.2203157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Black M, Strbac G. Value of bulk energy storage for managing wind power fluctuations. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. 2007;22(1):197–205.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TEC.2006.889619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brandstätt C, Brunekreeft G, Jahnke K. How to deal with negative power price spikes? - flexible voluntary curtailment agreements for large-scale integration of wind. Energy Policy. 2011;39(6):3732–40.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.03.082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brouwer A, van den Broek M, Zappa W, Turkenburg W, Faaij A. Least-cost options for integrating intermittent renewables in low-carbon power systems. Appl Energy. 2016;161:48–74.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.09.090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lund H. Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development. Energy. 2007;32(6):912–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2006.10.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lund H, Kempton W. Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G. Energy Policy. 2008;36(9):3578–87.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2008.06.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mathiesen B, Lund H, Connolly D, Wenzel H, Ostergaard P, Möller B, et al. Smart energy systems for coherent 100% renewable energy and transport solutions. Appl Energy. 2015;145:139–54.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.01.075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lykidi M, Gourdel P. How to manage flexible nuclear power plants in a deregulated electricity market from the point of view of social welfare? Energy. 2015;85:167–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.03.032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    IEA. Empowering variable renewables: options for Flexible Electricity Systems. Paris: International Energy Agency; 2009.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ma J, Silva V, Belhomme R, Kirschen DS, Ochoa LF. Evaluating and planning flexibility in sustainable power systems. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy. 2013;4(1):200–9.  https://doi.org/10.1109/TSTE.2012.2212471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kondziella H, Bruckner T. Flexibility requirements of renewable energy based electricity systems - a review of research results and methodologies. Renew Sust Energ Rev. 2016;53:10–22.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.07.199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kronthaler N, Müller T. Optionen zur Deckung des steigenden Flexibilitätsbedarfs. BWK. März 2016;68(3):70–3.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Huber, D. Dimkova and T. Hamacher, Integration of wind and solar power in Europe - assessment of flexibility requirements, München, 2014.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. King, B. Kirby, M. Milligan, S. Beuning, Flexibility reserve reductions from an energy imbalance market with high levels of wind energy in the Western interconnection [Tech. rep. NREL/TP-5500-52330], National Renewable Energy Laboratory; 2011.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    A. V. Selasinsky, The integration of renewable energy sources in continuous intraday markets for electricity. Diss. Technical University of Dresden 2016.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Buttler A, Dinkel F, Franz S, Spliethoff H. Variability of wind and solar power – an assessment of the current situation in the European Union based on the year 2014. Energy. 2016;106:147–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2016.03.041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Klein K, Killinger S, Fischer D, Streuling C, Salom J, Cubi E. Comparison of the future residual load in fifteen countries and requirements to grid-supportive building operation. Eur Secur. October 2016;2016:11–4.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hirth L. The market value of variable renewables - the effect of solar wind power variability on their relative price. Energy Econ. 2013;38:218–36.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2013.02.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ueckerdt F, Hirth L, Luderer G, Edenhofer O. System LCOE: What are the costs of variable renewables? Energy. 2013;63:61–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ueckerdt F, Brecha R, Luderer G. Analyzing major challenges of wind and solar variability in power systems. Renew Energy. 2015;81:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2015.03.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Klinge Jacobsen H, Zvingilaite E. Reducing the market impact of large shares of intermittent energy in Denmark. Energy Policy. 2010;38(7):3403–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2010.02.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hogan M. Follow the missing money: ensuring reliability at least cost to consumers in the transition to a low-carbon power system. Electr J. 2017;30(1):55–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2016.12.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rubin OD, Babcock BA. The impact of expansion of wind power capacity and pricing methods on the efficiency of deregulated electricity markets. Energy. 2013;59:676–88.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2013.07.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), An electricity market for Germany’s energy transition, Berlin, 2015.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Consentec and r. e. consulting, System Adequacy for Germany and its Neighbouring Countries: Transnational Monitoring and Assessment, 2015.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    T. Müller, D. Gunkel and D. Möst, Die Auswirkungen des Einspeisevorrangs erneuerbarer Energien auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit konventioneller Anlagen und die Preisdauerlinie, Köln: 10. VDI-Fachtagung Optimierung in der Energiewirtschaft, 2013.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    T. Müller, D. Gunkel and D. Möst, How does renewable curtailment influence the need of transmission and storage capacities in Europe?, 13th European IAEE Conference, 2013.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Denholm P, Hand M. Grid flexibility and storage required to achieve very high penetration of variable renewable electricity. Energy Policy. 2011;39(3):1817–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.01.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    P. Denholm, J. Novacheck, J. Jorgenson and M. O’Connell, Impact of flexibility options on grid economic carrying capacity of solar and wind: three case studies., National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 2016.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bayer B. Current practice and thinking with integrating demand response for power system flexibility in the electricity markets in the USA and Germany. Current Sustainable / Renewable Energy Reports. 2015;2(2):55–62.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40518-015-0028-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mechleri E, Fennell P, Dowell M. Flexible operation strategies for coal- and gas-CCS power stations under the UK and USA markets. Energy Procedia. 2017;114:6543–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hong L, Lund H, Möller B. The importance of flexible power plant operation for Jiangsu’s wind integration. Energy. 2012;41:499–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    D. Bogdanov, A. Toktarova and C. Breyer, Transition Towards 100% Renewable Energy system by 2050 for Kazakhstan, in Astana Economic Forum, Astana, Kazakhstan, 2017.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    A. Gulagi, D. Bogdanov and C. Breyer, The demand for storage technologies in energy transition pathways towards 100% renewable energy for India, in 11th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference, IRES, Düsseldorf, Germany, 2017a.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    A. Gulagi, D. Bogdanov and C. Breyer, The demand for storage technologies in energy transition pathways towards 100% renewable energy for India., in 11th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference, March 14–16, 2017, Düsseldorf, 2017b.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    M. Barasa, D. Bogdanov, A. Solomon Oyewo and C. Breyer, A cost optimal resolution for sub-Saharan Africa powered by 100% renewables for year 2030 sssumptions, in 32nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Munich, Germany, 2016.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    U. Caldera and C. Breyer, Impact of battery and water storage on the transition to an integrated 100% renewable energy power system for Saudi Arabia, in 11th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference, IRES, Düsseldorf, Germany, 2017.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    B. Lu, A. Blakers and M. Stocks, 90–100% renewable electricity for the South West Interconnected System of Western Australia, Energy (Accepted Manuscript), p. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.01.077, 2017.
  54. 54.
    K. Lövebrant Västermark, M. Hofmann, E.A. Bergmann. A European energy-only market in 2030, Oslo, 2016.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Holttinen H. Optimal electricity market for wind power. Energy Policy. 2005;33(16):2052–63.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2004.04.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Winkler J, Gaio A, Pfluger B, Ragwitz M. Impact of renewables on electricity markets – do supportschemes matter? Energy Policy. 2016;93:157–67.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2016.02.049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gawel E, Purkus A. Promoting the market and system integration of renewable energies through premium schemes—a case study of the German market premium. Energy Policy. 2013;61:599–609.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.06.117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Keay M. UK energy policy – stuck in ideological limbo? Energy Policy. 2016;94:247–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2016.04.022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    ENTSO-E, Ten-year network development plan 2016, Brussels, 2016.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Schaber K, Steinke F, Mühlich P, Hamacher T. Parametric study of variable renewable energy integration in Europe: advantages and costs of transmission grid extensions. Energy Policy. 2012;42:498–508.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.12.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    De Jonghe C, Delarue E, Belmans R, D’haeseleer W. Determining optimal electricity technology mix with high level of wind power penetration. Appl Energy. 2011;88(6):2231–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.12.046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Farahmand H, Aigner T, Doorman G, Korpås M, Huertas-Hernando D. Balancing market integration in the Northern European continent: a 2030 case study. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy. 2012;3(4):2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Steinke FWPHC. Grid vs. storage in a 100% renewable Europe. Renew Energy. 2013;50:826–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2012.07.044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bussar C, Stöcker P, Cai Z, Moraes L, Magnor D, Wiernes P, et al. Large-scale integration of renewable energies and impact on storage demand in a European renewable power system of 2050 - sensitivity study. J Energy Storage. 2016;6:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.est.2016.02.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fürsch M, Hagspiel S, Jägemann C, Nagl S, Lindenberger D, Tröster E. The role of grid extensions in a cost-efficient transformation of the European electricity system until 2050. Appl Energy. 2013;104:642–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.11.050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gils H, Scholz Y, Pregger T, Luca de Tena D, Heide D. Integrated modelling of variable renewable energy-based power supply in Europe. Energy. 2017;123:173–88.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.01.115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Després J, Mima S, Kitous A, Criqui P, Hadjsaid N, Noirot I. Storage as a flexibility option in power systems with high shares of variable renewable energy sources: a POLES-based analysis. Energy Econ. 2017;64:638–50.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2016.03.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mathiesen B, Lund H. Comparative analyses of seven technologies to facilitate the integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources. IET Renewable Power Generation. 2009;3(2):190.  https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-rpg:20080049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kirkerud J, Bolkesjø T, Trømborg E. Power-to-heat as a flexibility measure for integration of renewable energy. Energy. 2017;128:776–84.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.03.153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kristoffersen T, Capion K, Meibom P. Optimal charging of electric drive vehicles in a market environment. Appl Energy. 2011;88(5):1940–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.12.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Schill W. Residual load, renewable surplus generation and storage requirements in Germany. Energy Policy. 2014;73:65–79.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2014.05.032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    • Weitemeyer S, Kleinhans D, Vogt T, Agert C. Integration of renewable energy sources in future power systems: the role of storage. Renewable Energy. 2015;75:14–20. The authors of this paper investigate the role of storages for the integration of renewable energy sources in future power systems and give special focus to the need of storage facilities.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Roscoe A, Ault G. Supporting high penetrations of renewable generation via implementation of real-time electricity pricing and demand response. IET Renewable Power Generation. 2010;4(4):369.  https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-rpg.2009.0212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christoph Zöphel
    • 1
  • Steffi Schreiber
    • 1
  • Theresa Müller
    • 1
  • Dominik Möst
    • 1
  1. 1.TU Dresden, Chair of Energy EconomicsDresdenGermany

Personalised recommendations