Overview of Lithium-Ion Grid-Scale Energy Storage Systems
Purpose of Review
This paper provides a reader who has little to none technical chemistry background with an overview of the working principles of lithium-ion batteries specifically for grid-scale applications. It also provides a comparison of the electrode chemistries that show better performance for each grid application.
Two of the main causes driving the growth of stationary energy storage technologies are the increasing environmental regulations that promote a high penetration of non-dispatchable generation and policy changes in the electricity markets that benefit the profit of fast response energy resources such as a battery. The combination of these two factors is drawing the attention of investors toward lithium-ion grid-scale energy storage systems.
We review the relevant metrics of a battery for grid-scale energy storage. A simple yet detailed explanation of the functions and the necessary characteristics of each component in a lithium-ion battery is provided. We also discuss the chemistries currently used for cathode and anode materials. Discussed will be the trade-off of several materials with respect to cost, thermal stability, cyclability, environmental friendliness, and other important characteristics to be considered for grid applications. This paper also discusses the commercial availability of lithium-ion batteries for grid-scale storage and presents some of the containerized battery storage solutions available in the market.
KeywordsEnergy storage system Lithium-ion batteries Grid-scale energy storage Electrochemical energy storage Electrode materials
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
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