Advertisement

The Effect of Cyclic Load Characteristics on Unbound Granular Materials

  • Ali AlnedawiEmail author
  • Kali Prasad Nepal
  • Riyadh Al-Ameri
Technical Paper
  • 5 Downloads

Abstract

Vertical load characteristics used in laboratory repeated load triaxial tests (RLTT) have a significant impact on evaluating unbound granular materials (UGMs) for the flexible road pavements. Many studies and standard testing protocols suggest a diverse range of these characteristics (i.e. stress magnitude, pulse shape type, loading period and rest period). Several studies have been conducted to identify the factors that affect the permanent deformation (PD) and resilient modulus (Mr) of UGMs. However, the effect of the pulse shape types has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study is to experimentally investigate the effect of vertical stress pulse shape type on the PD and Mr behaviour of the UGMs using RLTT. For further assessment, a parametric analysis was also conducted using eight existing PD and Mr constitutive models. Three typical vertical stress pulse shape types were investigated, namely trapezoidal, haversine and triangular, as suggested by several international testing protocols. The results show that tested UGMs, using trapezoidal stress pulse, produced higher PD and lower Mr than haversine and triangular pulses under controlled experimental conditions. As the loading span of the pulse increased, the amount of PD also increased, and Mr decreased. Some of the regression parameters of the investigated constitutive models for both PD and Mr showed correlations with the type of applied stress pulses. Moreover, it was found that the PD and Mr models were material dependent, as a better statistical fit was achieved for the granite than the basalt samples. It is recommended to take extra precautions while adopting a particular type of vertical stress pulse shape as the results may vary widely.

Keywords

Flexible pavement Unbound granular materials Repeated load triaxial test Load pulse shape Permanent deformation Constitutive models 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    AASHTO 2002, Guide for the Design of New and Rehabilitated Pavement Structures, National Cooperative Highway Research Program, AASHTO NCHRP Project 1-37A. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    AASHTO 2012, Standard method of test for determining the resilient modulus of soils and aggregate materials, American Association of State and Highway Transportation OfficialsGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alnedawi, A, Nepal, KP & Al-Ameri, R 2017, A Comparison Study between Basalt and Granite Crushed Rocks under Repeated Traffic Loads, paper presented to The First MoHESR and HCED Iraqi Scholars Conference in Australasia, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alnedawi, A., Nepal, K.P., Al-Ameri, R.: Mechanistic behavior of open and dense graded unbound granular materials under traffic loads. International Journal of GEOMATE. 14, 124–129 (2018a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alnedawi, A., Nepal, K.P., Al-Ameri, R.: Moisture content effect on permanent deformation behaviour of unbound granular materials. International journal of civil engineering and technology. 9, 1856–1862 (2018b)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alnedawi, A, Nepal, KP & Al-Ameri, R 2018c, Permanent deformation prediction model of unbound granular materials for flexible pavement design, Transportation Infrastructure GeotechnologyGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alnedawi, A., Nepal, K.P., Al-Ameri, R., Alabdullah, M.: Effect of vertical stress rest period on deformation behaviour of unbound granular materials: experimental and numerical investigations. Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 11, 172–180 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Australian Standard: Soil Compaction and Density Tests-Determination of the Dry Density/Moisture Content Relation of a Soil Using Modified Compactive Effort. Standards Australia, Sydney (2003)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Australian Standard: Particle Size Distribution-Sieving Method. Standards Australia, Sydney (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Australian Standard: Sampling and Preparation of Soils-Preparation of Disturbed Soil Samples for Testing. Standards Australia, Sydney (2011)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Austroads 2007, Austroads Repeated Load Triaxial Test Method: Determination of Permanent Deformation and Resilient Modulus Characteristics of Unbound Granular Materials Under Drained Conditions, AG-PT/T053, Austroads PublicationGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Austroads 2008, Guide to Pavement Technology / Part 4A: Granular Base and Subbase Materials, Austroads Publication, pp. 1–64Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Azam, A.M., Cameron, D.A., Rahman, M.M.: Permanent strain of unsaturated unbound granular materials from construction and demolition waste. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 27(3), 04014125 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Barksdale, R.D.: Compressive stress pulse times in flexible pavements for use in dynamic testing. Highw. Res. Rec. (1971) no. 345 Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barksdale, RD 1972, Laboratory evaluation of rutting in base course materials, in Presented at the Third International Conference on the Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements, Grosvenor House, Park Lane, London, England, Sept. 11–15, 1972., vol. 1Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bodin, D & Kraft, J 2015, Effect of moisture content and laboratory preparation conditions on the permanent deformation of unbound granular materials, 192529403XGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brown, S 1973, Determination of Young’s modulus for bituminous materials in pavement design, Highw. Res. Rec., no. 431Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    CEN, ECfS 2004, Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures - part 7: cyclic load triaxial test for unbound mixtures, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chazallon, C., Allou, F., Hornych, P., Mouhoubi, S.: Finite elements modelling of the long-term behaviour of a full-scale flexible pavement with the shakedown theory. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech. 33(1), 45–70 (2009)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dawson, A., Kolisoja, P., Vuorimies, N.: Permanent deformation behaviour of low volume roads in the northern periphery areas. In: Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Bearing Capacity of Roads. Railways and Airfields, Trondheim (2005)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gabr, A., Cameron, D.: Permanent strain modeling of recycled concrete aggregate for unbound pavement construction. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 25(10), 1394–1402 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gu, F., Zhang, Y., Droddy, C., Luo, R., Lytton, R.: Development of a new mechanistic empirical rutting model for unbound granular material. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 28, 04016051 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hu, X., Zhou, F., Hu, S., Walubita, L.: Proposed loading waveforms and loading time equations for mechanistic-empirical pavement design and analysis. J. Transp. Eng. 136(6), 518–527 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Huang, YH 2004, Pavement analysis and design, Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., no. 2, pp. 279–82Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Huurman, M 1997, Permanent Deformation in Concrete Block Pavements, Civil Engineering and Geosciences, vol. PhDGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lekarp, F., Isacsson, U., Dawson, A.: State of the art. II: permanent strain response of unbound aggregates. J. Transp. Eng. 126(1), 76–83 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Loulizi, A., Al-Qadi, I., Lahouar, S., Freeman, T.: Measurement of vertical compressive stress pulse in flexible pavements: representation for dynamic loading tests. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 1816, 125–136 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    MansourKhaki, A., Samdzadeh, A., Jebalbarezi, M.: Study of loading waveform, loading duration, rest period and stress level on fatigue life of asphalt mixtures. Engineering Solid Mechanics. 3(2), 93–102 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    McLean, D.B.: Permanent Deformation Characteristics of Asphalt Concrete. University of California, Berkeley (1974)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    NCHRP 2003, Guide for Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design of New and Rehabilitated Pavement Structures; Appendix CC-3, Update Traffic Frequency Calculation for Asphalt Layers. Final Document, NCHRP 1-37A'Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Qamhia, I.I.A., Chow, L.C., Mishra, D., Tutumluer, E.: Dense-graded aggregate base gradation influencing rutting model predictions. Transportation Geotechnics. 13, 43–51 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Qiao, Y., Dawson, A., Huvstig, A., Korkiala-Tanttu, L.: Calculating rutting of some thin flexible pavements from repeated load triaxial test data. International Journal of Pavement Engineering. 16(6), 467–476 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rahman, MS 2015, Characterising the Deformation Behaviour of Unbound Granular Materials in Pavement Structures, TRITA-TSC-PHD thesis, PhD thesisGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rahman, M.S., Erlingsson, S.: Predicting permanent deformation behaviour of unbound granular materials. International Journal of Pavement Engineering. 16(7), 587–601 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Romanoschi, S.A.: Empirical models for permanent deformation of subgrade soils from the data collected at the pavement subgrade performance study. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 29(3), 04016236 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Seed, HB, Mitry, F, Monismith, C & Chan, C 1967, Prediction of flexible pavement deflections from laboratory repeated-load tests, NCHRP report, no. 35Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sweere, GTH 1990, Unbound granular bases for roads, Technische Universitiet DelftGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Theyse, H., De Beer, M., Rust, F.: Overview of South African mechanistic pavement design method. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 1539, 6–17 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Uzan, J.: Characterization of granular material. Transp. Res. Rec. 1022(1), 52–59 (1985)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Uzan, J.: Granular material characterization for mechanistic pavement design. J. Transp. Eng. 125(2), 108–113 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Werkmeister, S 2003, Permanent deformation behaviour of unbound granular materials in pavement constructionsGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Witczak, M & Uzan, J 1988, The Universal Airport Design System, Report I of IV: Granular Material Characterization, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Maryland, College ParkGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wolff, H & Visser, A 1995, 'Incorporating elasto-plasticity in granular layer pavement design', in International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences and Geomechanics Abstracts, vol. 4, p. 177AGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zhou, C., Huang, B., Drumm, E., Shu, X., Dong, Q., Udeh, S.: Soil resilient modulus regressed from physical properties and influence of seasonal variation on asphalt pavement performance. J. Transp. Eng. 141(1), 04014069 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EngineeringDeakin UniversityGeelongAustralia

Personalised recommendations