Evolution, Trends, and Potential Explanations of the Increase in the Incidence of Tuberculosis: the Case of Uruguay

  • Miguel AlegrettiEmail author
  • Mariela Contrera
  • Alicia Aleman
Bacterial Infections (H Back, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Bacterial Infections


Purpose of review

A descriptive analysis of the trend of tuberculosis incidence in Uruguay between 1995 and 2018.

Recent findings

In 2015, World Health Organization (WHO) proposed The END TB Strategy; the Latin American countries that implemented these strategies at the first level of care have had successful outcomes in terms of the reduction in the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of the disease.


Uruguay is a striking case in the regional environment regarding tuberculosis epidemiology. The trend of tuberculosis had a turning point in 2006, which defines two clearly different periods. The first period covers the year 1995 to 2006 and shows a significant decrease in the incidence rate and the second period covers the year 2006 to 2018 and shows a significant increase in the incidence rate. The proportion of contacts of tuberculosis cases receiving prophylactic treatment, the percentage of cases lost to follow-up, and the magnitude of the bacillary burden at diagnosis moment are possible factors linked to the changes in the trend of the incidence of tuberculosis. The initiation of a gradual transfer of the responsibilities of the National Program of Tuberculosis in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention to primary care health providers in the National Integrated Health System will hopefully contribute to reverse the epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in the country.


Tuberculosis Trends Uruguay 



We acknowledge CHLA-EP for providing national databases that made possible the analysis presented.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of Interest

Dr. Alegretti reports non-financial support from Comisión Honoraria de Lucha Antituberculosa, outside the submitted work. Dr. Contrera reports personal fees from Comisión Honoraria de Lucha Antituberculosa, outside the submitted work. Dr. Aleman has nothing to disclose.

Human and Animal rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miguel Alegretti
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mariela Contrera
    • 2
  • Alicia Aleman
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Social, Facultad de MedicinaUniversidad de la RepúblicaMontevideoUruguay
  2. 2.Comisión Honoraria para la Lucha Antituberculosa y Enfermedades PrevalentesMontevideoUruguay

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