Advertisement

Plant Physiology Reports

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 410–421 | Cite as

Effects of irrigation and phosphorus fertilization on physiology, growth, and nitrogen-accumulation of Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius)

  • David R. CarterEmail author
  • Robert A. Slesak
  • Timothy B. Harrington
  • Anthony W. D’Amato
Original Article

Abstract

We tested the effects of phosphorus (P) fertilization and soil water on the growth, physiology, and total nitrogen (N) accumulation in N-fixing Scotch broom in Olympia, WA. We manipulated soil water and P availability via irrigation and fertilization, respectively, in a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial on potted one-year old Scotch broom seedlings (n = 20) in an N-deficient sand. There was substantial evidence that increased-irrigation and P-fertilization had similar positive effects on N accumulation in Scotch broom approximately equally. High-irrigation rates were more often associated with positive physiological and growth responses in Scotch broom than fertilization, however. Although the irrigation × fertilization interaction was not significant, there were additive effects of high-irrigation and fertilization on biomass and N content as both were 50% greater in the fertilized-and-high-irrigation treatment relative to the respective fertilized and high-irrigation treatments. We noted an accumulation of N and P in the plant tissues. Analyses indicated a pattern of decreasing function and growth with increasing N and P concentrations in Scotch broom biomass, suggesting plant growth and physiology were limited by some other resource. Total plant N content values ranged from 7.0 ± 1.1 g plant−1 in the control and 23.4 g ± 9.0 plant−1 in the fertilized-and-high-irrigation treatment. Extrapolated to typical densities of comparably sized Scotch broom plants on invaded sites in the western Pacific Northwest, these findings suggest that, at least, 12–65 kg N ha−1 would be found in Scotch broom plants in the field.

Keywords

Soil water Transpiration N-fixation Biomass Water-use efficiency 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank James Dollins, Alyssa Peter, LeRoy Turner and Dave Peter for their help setting up and maintaining this study, as well as taking field measurements. Funding for this project was provided by the USDA National Institute for Food and Agriculture (Grants.Gov Number: GRANT11325729).

References

  1. Barron, A. R., Wurzberger, N., Bellenger, J.-P., Wright, S. J., Kraepiel, A. M. L., & Hedin, L. O. (2009). Molybdenum limitation of asymbiotic nitrogen fixation in tropical forest soils. Nature Geoscience,2, 42–45.Google Scholar
  2. Barros, L., Dueñas, M., Carvalho, A. M., Ferreira, I. C., & Santos-Buelga, C. (2012). Characterization of phenolic compounds in flowers of wild medicinal plants from Northeastern Portugal. Food and Chemical Toxicology,50, 1576–1582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Berg, J. M., Tymoczko, J. L., & Stryer, L. (2002). Biochemistry, 5th edn. New York: W H Freeman; Section 24.1, Nitrogen Fixation: Microorganisms Use ATP and a Powerful Reductant to Reduce Atmospheric Nitrogen to Ammonia.Google Scholar
  4. Bergersen, F. J., Gibson, A. H., & Licis, I. (1995). Growth and N2-fixation of soybeans inoculated with strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum differing in energetic efficiency and PHB utilization. Soil Biology & Biochemistry,27, 611–616.Google Scholar
  5. Bhuvaneswari, T. V., Bhagwat, A. A., & Bauer, W. D. (1981). Transient susceptibility of root cells in four common legumes to nodulation by Rhizobia. Plant Physiology,68(5), 1144–1149.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Bodirsky, L., & Müller, C. (2014). Robust relationship between yields and nitrogen inputs indicates three ways to reduce nitrogen pollution. Environmental Research Letters, 9, 1–4.Google Scholar
  7. Caldwell, B. A. (2006). Effects of invasive Scotch broom on soil properties in a Pacific coastal prairie soil. Applied Soil Ecology,32, 149–152.Google Scholar
  8. Carter, D. R., Slesak, R. A., Harrington, T. B., Peter, D., & D’Amato, A. W. (2018). Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) alters microenvironment and promotes nonnative grasses. Biological Invasions, 21, 1055–1073.Google Scholar
  9. Domínguez, J., Gómez-Brandón, M., Martínez-Cordiero, H., & Lores, M. (2018). Bioconversion of Scotch broom into a high-quality organic fertilizer: Vermicomposting as a sustainable option. Waste Management and Research,36(11), 1092–1099.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Eaglesham, A. R. J., & Ayanaba, A. (1984). Tropical stress ecology of Rhizobia, root nodulation and legume fixation. In N.S. Subba Rao (Ed.), Current developments in biological nitrogen fixation (pp. 1–35). New York, NY: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  11. Evans, J., Wallace, C., & Dobrowolski, N. (1993). Interaction of soil type and temperature on the survival of Rhizobium leguminosarum BV. Viciae. Soil Biology and Biochemistry,25(9), 1153–1160.Google Scholar
  12. Fellows, R. J., Patterson, R. P., Raper, D., & Harris, D. (1987). Nodule activity and allocation of photosynthate of soybean during recovery from water stress. Plant Physiology,84(2), 456–460.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Fogarty, G., & Facelli, J. M. (1999). Growth and competition of Cytisus scoparius, an invasive shrub, and Australian native shrubs. Plant Ecology,144, 27–35.Google Scholar
  14. Forrest, S. I., Verma, D. P. S., & Dhindsa, R. S. (1991). Starch content and activities of starch- metabolizing enzymes in effective and ineffective root nodules of soybean. Canadian Journal of Botany,69, 697–701.Google Scholar
  15. Grove, S., Parker, I. M., & Haubensak, K. A. (2015). Persistence of a soil legacy following removal of nitrogen fixing invader. Biological Invasions,17, 2621–2631.Google Scholar
  16. Guerin, V., Trinchant, J. C., & Riquad, J. (1990). Nitrogen fixation (C2H2 Reduction) by broad bean (Vicia faba L.) nodules and bacteroids under water-restricted thresholds. Plant Physiology,92(3), 595–601.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Haubensak, K. A., & Parker, I. M. (2004). Soil changes accompanying invasion of the exotic shrub Cytisus scoparius in glacial outwash prairies in Western Washington [USA]. Plant Ecology,175, 71–79.Google Scholar
  18. Hedin, L. O., Brookshire, E. N. J., Menge, D. N. L., & Barron, A. R. (2005). The nitrogen paradox in tropical forest ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics,40, 613–635.Google Scholar
  19. Helgerson, O. T., Gordon, J. C., & Perry, D. A. (1984). N2 fixation by red alder (Alnus rubra) and Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) planted under precommercially thinned Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Plant and Soil,78, 221–233.Google Scholar
  20. Houlton, B. Z., Wang, Y. P., Vitousek, P. M., & Field, C. B. (2008). A unifying framework for dinitrogen fixation in the terrestrial biosphere. Nature,454, 327–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Huitema, B. (2011). Analysis of covariance and alternatives: Statistical methods for experiments, quasi-experiments, and single-case studies (pp. 299–300). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  22. Israel, D. W. (1993). Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation and host-plant growth during development of and recovery from phosphorus deficiency. Physiologia Plantarum,88(2), 294–300.Google Scholar
  23. Lenth, R. V. (2016). Least-squares means: The R Package lsmeans. Journal of Statistical Software,69, 1–33.Google Scholar
  24. Malliard, A., Etienne, P., Diquélou, S., Trouverie, J., Billard, V., Yvin, J. C., et al. (2016). Nutrient deficiencies modify the ionomic composition of plant tissues: a focus on cross- talk between molybdenum and other nutrients in Brassica napus. Journal of Experimental Botany,67(19), 5631–5641.Google Scholar
  25. Marino, D., Frendo, P., Ladrera, R., Zabalza, A., Puppo, A., Arrese-Igor, C., et al. (2007). Nitrogen fixation control under drought stress: Localized or systemic? Plant Physiology,143(4), 1968–1974.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Mefford, C., Cohen, S., Sampath, S., Haring, D., Jellicoe, M., Nally, K., et al. (2017). Economic impact of invasives: Direct costs estimates and economic impacts for Washington state. Seattle: Community Attributes Inc.Google Scholar
  27. Pinheiro, J., Bates, D., DebRoy, S., Sarkar, D., & R Development Core Team. (2015). nlme: Linear and nonlinear mixed effects models. R package version 3.1-108Google Scholar
  28. Potter, K. J. B., Kritcos, D. J., Watt, M. S., & Leriche, A. (2009). The current and future potential distribution of Cytisus scoparius: A weed of pastoral systems, natural ecosystems and plantation forestry. Weed Research,49, 271–282.Google Scholar
  29. Prober, S. M., & Lunt, I. E. (2009). Restoration of Themeda australis swards suppresses soil nitrate and enhances ecological resistance to invasion by exotic annuals. Biological Invasions,11, 171–181.Google Scholar
  30. R Core Team. (2017). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. https://www.R-project.org/. Accessed Jan 5 2017.
  31. Rivaie, A. A. (2011). Growth response of broom (Cytisus scoparius) growing with and without radiata pine (Pinus radiata) seedling to different P levels in soils. Journal of Forestry Research,22, 597.Google Scholar
  32. Rueden, C. T., Schindelin, J., & Hiner, M. C. (2017). Image J2: ImageJ for the next generation of scientific image data. BMC Bioinformatics,18, 529.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Schulze, J. (2004). How are nitrogen fixation rates regulated in legumes? Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science,167, 125–137.Google Scholar
  34. Shaben, J., & Myers, J. H. (2009). Relationships between Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius), soil nutrients, and plant diversity in the Garry oak savannah ecosystem. Plant Ecology,207, 81–91.Google Scholar
  35. Slesak, R. A., Harrington, T. B., & D’Amato, A. W. (2016). Invasive Scotch broom alters soil chemical properties in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA. Plant and Soil,398, 281–289.Google Scholar
  36. Sprent, J. I. (1985). Nitrogen fixation in arid environments. Plants for arid lands. London: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  37. Thorne, M. S., Skinner, Q. D., Smith, M. A., Rodgers, J. D., Laycock, W. A., & Cerekci, S. A. (2002). Evaluation of a technique for measuring canopy volume of shrubs. Journal of Range Management,55, 235–241.Google Scholar
  38. Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M., et al. (1968). Flora Europea (Vol. 2, p. 89). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Vance, C. P., & Heichel, G. H. (1991). Carbon in N2 fixation: limitation or exquisite adaptation. Annual Review of Plant Biology,42(1), 373–390.Google Scholar
  40. Vitousek, P. M., Menge, D. N. L., Reed, S. C., & Cleveland, C. C. (2013). Biological nitrogen fixation: Rates, patterns and ecological controls in terrestrial ecosystems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B,368, 1–9.Google Scholar
  41. Watt, M. S., Clinton, P. W., Whitehead, D., Richardson, B., Mason, E. G., & Leckie, A. C. (2003a). Above-ground biomass accumulation and nitrogen fixation of broom (Cytisus scoparius L.) growing with juvenile Pinus radiata on a dryland site. Forest Ecology and Management,184, 93–104.Google Scholar
  42. Watt, M. S., Whitehead, D., Mason, E. G., Richardson, B., & Kimberly, M. O. (2003b). The influence of weed competition for light and water on growth and dry matter partitioning of young Pinus radiata, at a dryland site. Forest Ecology and Management,183, 363–376.Google Scholar
  43. Wheeler, C. T., Helgerson, O. T., Perry, D. A., & Gordon, J. C. (1987). Nitrogen fixation and biomass accumulation in plant communities dominated by Cytisus scoparius L. in Oregon and Scotland. Journal of Applied Ecology,24(1), 231–237.Google Scholar
  44. Williams, P. A. (1981). Aspects of the ecology of broom (Cytisus scoparius) in Canterbury, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany,19, 31–43.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Society for Plant Physiology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • David R. Carter
    • 1
    Email author
  • Robert A. Slesak
    • 2
  • Timothy B. Harrington
    • 3
  • Anthony W. D’Amato
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Forest Resources and Environmental ConservationVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Department of Forest ResourcesUniversity of MinnesotaSt. PaulUSA
  3. 3.USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research StationOlympiaUSA
  4. 4.Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural ResourcesUniversity of VermontBurlingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations