Periodontal Disease and Systemic Interactions (Periodontal Medicine): Current Epidemiological Evidence
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Purpose of Review
To review recent literature on the effects of periodontal diseases on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) with emphasis on the contributions of Dr. Robert Genco.
Numbers of missing teeth are positively related to levels of infection and inflammation. Most studies find a positive relationship between periodontitis and incident CVD and T2DM and the ability of periodontal treatment to reduce CVD risk factors and HbA1C levels, but controversy due to negative findings remains.
Recent finding that tooth loss is related to levels of inflammation is important as it provides clues to how tooth loss is related to systemic diseases. New studies involving microorganisms and host response are important, as they underlie clinical signs. Basic problems, such as periodontal case definitions, type of treatments, timing of treatment, and follow-up times need to be addressed in order to reduce inconsistent findings in epidemiologic studies and clinical trials.
KeywordsPeriodontal disease Type 2 diabetes mellitus Atherosclerosis Cardiovascular disease Epidemiology
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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