Current Developments on Enamel and Dentin Remineralization
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Purpose of Review
To present an overview of the ongoing research on enamel and dentin remineralization and to describe particle-mediated and biomimetic approaches. The importance of restoring tissue functionality as the ultimate goal of remineralization is emphasized.
Calcium-releasing particles and adjuvants to increase fluoride uptake by enamel are described in the literature. In order to recover the prismatic structure in mineral-depleted enamel, amelogenin-derived peptides and amelogenin analogues have been proposed as templates for apatite deposition. In dentin, mineral deposition per se is not enough to recover the mechanical properties, and the use of biomimetic analogs is necessary to guide apatite formation into the collagen intrafibrillar spaces.
The use of biomimetic analogues associated with ion-releasing materials seems a promising approach for both enamel and dentin remineralization. Clinical translational protocols are still premature and have, so far, only been explored experimentally in vitro, with good outcomes particularly on structural and functional repair of artificial dentin carious lesions.
KeywordsDentin remineralization Enamel remineralization Functional remineralization Biomimetic remineralization Biomimetic analogues Fluoride
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Dr. Braga declares no conflicts of interest. Dr. Habelitz reports no conflicts of interest. In addition, Dr. Habelitz has a patent on compositions for the remineralization of dentin pending and not licensed.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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