Application of Stem Cells for Bone Regeneration in Critical-Sized Defects
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Purpose of Review
To discuss tissue bioengineering for critical-sized bone defects. To review the current stem cells that are in use and to describe the importance of an animal model for studying critical-sized bone defects.
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well investigated. Recently, other sources of MSCs have been identified and studied in critical-sized bone defects. As for animal models, several have been used to evaluate the use of stem cells in promoting regeneration in critical-sized bone defects. This review specifically focuses on one of the most widely used and accepted models, the rodent calvarium.
Stem cell therapy is promising for bone regeneration, especially for critical-sized bone defects. Additional studies are needed to better understand both the properties and mechanisms of the different types of stem cells, and to develop animal models that mimic human biology.
KeywordsCritical-sized bone defects Bone regeneration Stem cells Mesenchymal stem cells Bone morphogenic protein BMP
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
All authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major Importance
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