Current Oral Health Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 50–62 | Cite as

Smoking and Periodontal Health

  • S. Selva Süme Keşir
  • H. Ebru OlgunEmail author
Systemic Diseases (N Buduneli, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Systemic Diseases


Purpose of Review

Smoking is a strong and modifiable risk factor for periodontitis. The adverse effects of smoking on oral health are at the center of long-term studies. The aim of this review is to assess these effects with new findings.

Recent Findings

Studies in different populations have demonstrated strong associations between smoking and severity of periodontitis. Additionally, researchers have observed similar effects in various types of smoking such as water pipe smoking and smokeless tobacco. Microbiological analyses recently have shown increased early colonization of periodontal pathogens in smokers. Lower levels of immunoglobulins and impaired fibroblast attachment to matrix proteins are new observations. Smoking markedly influences response to treatment, and smokers are resistant to conventional periodontal therapy. Implant failure and risk of peri-implantitis are higher among smokers.


Latest data supports that severity of periodontitis is higher in smokers. Smoking cessation is beneficial for improving periodontal status and periodontal therapy outcomes.


Periodontal disease Smoking Risk factor Immune response Periodontal therapy 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Dentistry, Department of PeriodontologyKirikkale UniversityKirikkaleTurkey

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