Periodontal Medicine—New Diagnostic Opportunities
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Purpose of Review
We examined the literature on periodontal medicine to determine how this field has influenced the diagnosis of periodontal diseases and the search for biomarkers in oral fluids.
Periodontal medicine has pushed the boundaries of biomarker discovery in oral fluids, where several analytes present in serum can be detected and potentially explored for the diagnosis of systemic conditions. The study of mechanisms linking oral and systemic diseases has also contributed to advances in our understanding of systemic modulation of the subgingival microenvironment and its effects on gingival crevicular fluid components and the local microbiota.
Recent technological advances in “omics” platforms allow us to examine concomitantly functional changes that occur in the host and the resident microbiota during disease processes. Integration of multi-omics data such as the one proposed by the Integrative Human Microbiome Project will afford new insights into the interplay between oral and systemic diseases.
KeywordsPeriodontal diseases Systemic adverse outcomes Biomarkers Saliva Gingival crevicular fluid Microbiome
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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