Epidemiological Evidences for the Association of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders with Oral Diseases
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Purpose of Review
Obesity is the underlying cause of many chronic diseases and affects overall health. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders, particularly, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, have been recognized to be associated with oral diseases. This review describes the recent evidence from epidemiological studies investigating the effect of obesity and metabolic disorders on oral diseases, including dental caries and periodontal disease in adults.
Longitudinal studies indicate the direction of association that obesity and diabetes affect periodontal disease. Interpretation of causal relationships between metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease remains limited because of the small number of prospective evidence. Longitudinal studies investigating dental caries have not been performed.
Further exploration of the effect of metabolic syndrome on periodontal disease, and that of obesity and metabolic disorders on dental caries in longitudinal studies, is warranted.
KeywordsDental caries Diabetes Metabolic syndrome Obesity Periodontal disease
This study was supported by the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (16H05850 and 26861832) from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture of Japan, Tokyo, Japan.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
M Furuta and Y Yamashita declare no conflicts of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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