Advertisement

Current Oral Health Reports

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 8–13 | Cite as

The Impact of Oral Health on General Health: Educating Professionals and Patients

  • Casey Hein
  • Ray C. WilliamsEmail author
Systemic Diseases (M Bartold, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Systemic Diseases

Abstract

Purpose of Review

This review provides a brief summary of what science has postulated about the oral cavity and its relationship to the rest of the body. This article then looks at the emerging body of evidence for a definitive statement on the impact of oral health and disease on overall health and disease. It concludes by examining ways to educate oral healthcare providers (OHCPs) (i.e., dentists and dental hygienists) and their role in educating patients and the public about the interrelationships of oral and overall health and challenges associated with this.

Recent Findings

Since 1989, there have been major advances in understanding the role of periodontal infection and inflammation in contributing to the risk for systemic diseases. As the evidence emerges for an oral-systemic link, new strategies for educating dentistry, medicine, other non-dental healthcare professions, and the public about this link are also emerging.

Summary

Hopefully, a new awareness and understanding of the significance of oral health in sustaining general health lead to a new emphasis for prevention and treatment of periodontal disease.

Keywords

Periodontal disease Overall health Systemic diseases Oral-systemic link Education 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of Particular Interest, Published recently, Have Been Highlighted as: • of Importance, •• of Major Importance

  1. 1.
    Claffey N, Polyzois I, Williams R. History of the oral-systemic relationships In: Genco, RJ, Williams, RC, editors. Periodontal disease and overall health: a clinician’s guide. PAC, Inc. 2014.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hein C. Role of the professional in educating the public about the importance of oral health. In: Genco, RJ, Williams, RC, editors. Periodontal disease and overall health: a clinician’s guide. PAC, Inc. 2014.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Miller WD. The human mouth as a focus of infection. Dental Cosmos. 1891;33:689–706.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hunter WD. Oral sepsis as a cause of disease. Br Med J. 1900;2:215–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    • Hunter WD. The role of sepsis and antisepsis in medicine. Lancet. 1911;1:79–86. Dentistry is accused of building gold crowns and bridges onto severely diseased teeth, thus contributing to oral sepsis.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    • Billings FA. Focal infection: its broader application in the etiology of general disease. JAMA. 1914;63:899–903. The teeth, tonsils and sinuses are believed to be foci of infection that then disseminates throughout the body causing other diseases.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cecil RL, Angevine DM. Clinical and experimental observations on focal infection with an analysis of 200 cases of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Int Med. 1938;12:577–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mayo C. Focal infection of dental origin. Dental Cosmos. 1922;64:1206–8.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Editorial. JAMA 1952;150:490.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    • Mattila K, Nieminen M, Valtonen V, Rasi VP, Kesäniemi YA, Syrjälä SL, Jungell PS, Isoluoma M, Hietaniemi K, Jokinen MJ. Association between dental health and acute myocardial infarction. Br Med J. 1989;298:779–81. Patients presenting to the hospital with an MI are much more likely to have periodontal disease than patients without heart disease.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    • Offenbacher S, Katz V, Fertik G, Collins J, Boyd D, Maynor G, McKaig R, Beck J. Periodontal infection as a possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight. J Periodontal. 1996;67:1103–13. Mothers to be with periodontal disease are 7.4 times more likely to have a premature baby.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    DeStefano F, Anda RF, Kahn HS, Williamson DF, Russell CM. Dental disease and risk of coronary heart disease and mortality. Br Med J. 1993;306:688–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    •• Tonetti MS, Van Dyke TE. and on behalf of working group 1 of the joint EFP/AAP workshop. Periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: consensus report of the joint EFP/AAP workshop on periodontitis and systemic diseases. J Clin Periodontal. 2013;40:524–9. Systematic reviews indicate a significant association between the presence of periodontal disease and increased risk for cardiovascular disease.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    •• Chapple ILC, Genco R. and on behalf of working group 2 of the joint EFP/AAP workshop. Diabetes and periodontal diseases: consensus report of the joint EFP/AAP workshop on periodontitis and systemic diseases. J Clin Periodontal. 2013;40:5106–12. Strong evidence exists for a two-way relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    •• Sanz M, Kornman K. and on behalf of working group 3 of the joint EFP/AAP workshop. Periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes: consensus report of the joint EFP/AAp workshop on periodontitis and systemic diseases. J Clin Periodontal. 2013;40:5164–9. Strong evidence exists for a relationship between periodontal disease and the risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hein C, Cobb C, Iacopino A. Report of the independent panel of experts of the Scottsdale project. Grand Rounds Oral-Sys Med 2007;3(Suppl).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pearson TA, Mensah GA, Alexander RW, Anderson JL, Cannon III RO, Criqui M, Fadl YY, Fortmann SP, Hong Y, Myers GL, Rifai N, Smith Jr SC, Taubert K, Tracy RP, Vinicor F. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; American Heart Association. Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2003;107:499–511.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    • Friedewald VE, Kornman KS, Beck JD, Genco R, Goldfine A, Libby P, Offenbacher S, Ridker PM, Van Dyke TE, Roberts WC. The American Journal of Cardiology and Journal of Periodontology editors’ consensus: periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. J Periodontal. 2009;80:1021–32. Cardiologist and periodontists agree that strong data support a link between periodontal disease and heart disease.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    US Department of Health and Human Services. Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, 2000.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hobdell M, Petersen PE, Clarkson J, Johnson N. Global goals for oral health 2020. Int Dent J. 2003;53:285–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Report IX; Contemporary Issues in Medicine: Oral Health Education for Medical and Dental Students. Medical School Objectives Project; American Association of Medical Colleges; June 2008. Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    American Dental Education Association. Curriculum and Clinical Training in Oral Health for Physicians and Dentists: Report of a Panel of the Macy Study, 2008. Available at http://www.adea.org/publication/Documents/MACY%20REPORT%20.pdf. Accessed 8 Oct 2009.
  23. 23.
    Touger-Decker R, Mobley CC. American dietetic association. Position of the American dietetic association: oral health and nutrition. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107:14818–28.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Albert DA, Sadowsky D, Papapanou P, Conicella ML, Ward A. An examination of periodontal treatment and per member per month (PMPM) medical costs in an insured population. BMC Health Serv Res. 2006;6:103–0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Press Release Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan. University of Michigan. Blue Care Network study quantifies health care savings of regular dental care for patients with diabetes. Available at http://bcbsm.com/pr/pr_12-09-2008_11079.shtml. Accessed 8 October 2009.
  26. 26.
    New York State Department of Health. Oral health care during pregnancy and early childhood; practice guidelines, August 2006. Available at http://www.health.state.ny.us-publications/0824.pdf. Accessed 8 Oct 2009.
  27. 27.
    Wisconsin Department of Health Services. Wisconsin Diabetes Mellitus Essential Care Guidelines; Section 9: Oral Care. Available at http://dhs.wisconsin.gov/health/diabetes/-PDFs/GL09.pdf. Accessed 8 Oct 2009.
  28. 28.
    Rennie J, editor. Oral and whole body health. New York: Scientific American; 2006. p. 1–54.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Siperstein GN, Romano N, Glick GC, et al. A national survey of public perceptions of dentistry. Boston: University of Massachusetts; 2007.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hein C, Kunselman B, Frese P, Kellar K. Preliminary findings of consumer-patients’ perception of dental hygienists’ scope of practice/qualifications and the level of care being rendered. Presented at 83rd Annual Session of the American Dental Hygienists’ Association; Orlando, Florida; 2006.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    • Bell KP, Phillips C, Paquette DW, Offenbacher S, Wilder RS. Dental hygienists’ knowledge and opinions of oral-systemic connections: implications for education. J Dent Educ. 2012;76(6):682–94. These dental hygienists had a high level of knowledge about the oral-systemic link.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bowyer V, Sutcliffe P, Ireland R, Lindenmeyer A, Gadsby R, Graveney M, Sturt J, Dale J. Oral health awareness in adult patients with diabetes: a questionnaire study. Br Dent J 2011;211(6).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wilder RS, Thomas KM, Jared H. Periodontal-systemic disease education in United States dental hygiene programs. J Dent Educ. 2008;72:669–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    • Wilder RS, O’Donelll JA, Barry JM, Galli DM, Hakim F, Holyfield LJ, Robbins MR. Is dentistry at risk? A case for interprofessional education. J Dent Educ. 2008;72:1231–7. Little has changed in the way dental students are taught and prepared to participate in interprofessional education.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Global News Nexus. Santa Fe Group Salon Special Report. The necessity for major reform in dental education. Fall 2004. NYU College of Dentistry. Available at http://www.nyu.edu/dental/nexus/issues/fall2004/santafe.html. Accessed 8 Oct 2009.
  36. 36.
    Levin RP. Developing lifetime relationships with patients: strategies to improve patient care and build your practice. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2008;9:105–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Periodontics and International Centre for Oral-Systemic Health, College of Dentistry, Dentistry and Dental Hygiene, Rady Faculty of Health ScienceUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.Department of Periodontology, School of DentistryUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations