Technical report: dynamic assessment of plantar fasciitis and plantar fascia tears utilising dorsiflexion of the great toe

  • James S. B. KhoEmail author
  • Ghassan Almeer
  • Sharon McGarry
  • Steven L. James
  • Rajesh Botchu
Original Paper


Discrimination between plantar fasciitis and partial tears of the plantar fascia can be difficult on ultrasound given laxity of the plantar fascia in the region of its calcaneal insertion and anisotropy. Dynamic assessment with great toe dorsiflexion can improve visualisation of the proximal portion of the plantar fascia on ultrasound, by straightening the plantar fascia due to the windlass mechanism. This article describes the technique and its anatomical basis.


Ultrasound Plantar fascia Plantar fasciitis Plantar fascia rupture Dynamic ultrasound Dorsiflexion 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Ultrasonologia in Medicina e Biologia (SIUMB) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologyThe Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation TrustBirminghamUK

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