Ultrasonographic and multimodal imaging of pediatric genital female diseases

  • Maria Grazia CaprioEmail author
  • Marco Di Serafino
  • Alessia De Feo
  • Elvira Guerriero
  • Teresa Perillo
  • Luigi Barbuto
  • Norberto Vezzali
  • Eugenio Rossi
  • Federica Ferro
  • Gianfranco Vallone
  • Cinzia Orazi
Review article


Ultrasonography is the first-line imaging modality in the evaluation of the female pelvis in childhood and adolescence, because it is easy to perform, non-invasive and it does not require sedation. The transabdominal approach is preferred in children and adolescents, after filling the bladder to move away the bowel loops from the pelvis. The probe frequency must be adapted to age, thickness of tissues and depth of the structures under examination. High-frequency (4-12 MHz) linear or convex probes are used in newborns; high-frequency linear probes (4-12 MHz) in toddler, convex 5-7.5 MHz probes in girls and convex 3.5-5 MHz probes in teenagers. In this article, the main pathological conditions of the genital female tract in pediatric age are examined, such as congenital anomalies, disorders of sex development, ovarian cysts, ovarian tumors, adnexal torsion, primary amenorrhea, precocious puberty and pelvic inflammatory disease.


Ultrasound examination Pediatric age Genital female tract Congenital anomalies Disorders of sex development Pelvic expansive masses 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, and its later amendments.

Human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Additional informed consent was obtained from all the patients for whom identifying information is not included in this article.


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Copyright information

© Società Italiana di Ultrasonologia in Medicina e Biologia (SIUMB) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Grazia Caprio
    • 1
    Email author
  • Marco Di Serafino
    • 2
  • Alessia De Feo
    • 3
  • Elvira Guerriero
    • 3
  • Teresa Perillo
    • 3
  • Luigi Barbuto
    • 4
  • Norberto Vezzali
    • 5
  • Eugenio Rossi
    • 6
  • Federica Ferro
    • 5
  • Gianfranco Vallone
    • 7
  • Cinzia Orazi
    • 8
  1. 1.Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging National Research CouncilNaplesItaly
  2. 2.Radiology Department“Antonio Cardarelli” HospitalNaplesItaly
  3. 3.Department of Advanced Biomedical SciencesUniversity of Naples Federico IINaplesItaly
  4. 4.Radiology DepartmentUmberto I HospitalNocera InferioreItaly
  5. 5.Radiology DepartmentRegional Hospital of BolzanoBolzanoItaly
  6. 6.Radiology Department“Santobono-Pausilipon” Children HospitalNaplesItaly
  7. 7.Paediatric Radiology Department“Federico II” University HospitalNaplesItaly
  8. 8.Department of ImagingBambino Gesù Children’s Hospital Research InstituteRomeItaly

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